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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 types of infrastructure
paracrine, exocrine, endocrine
getting signals from the cells next to it
paracrine
getting signals by diffusing them to the target
exocrine
secreting signals into a duct
endocrine
two of the several classes of receptors the membrane employs
g-protein, tyrosine kinase
signal transduction leads to this
amplification
reception within the cell uses receptors that are these
transcription factors
3 things resulting from the activation of a cell response
alter metabolism, change shape, cause or prevent cell division
2 ways for a cell to receive a hormone
receptor is found inside the plasma membrane, receptor is in the nucleus
these reside in cytoplasm or nucleus
nuclear receptors
these bind to lipophilic molecules
nuclear receptors
these act as transcription factors to regulate the transcription of mRNA and the expression of proteins
nuclear receptors
these act directly on their targets
somatic hormones
somatic hormones are stimulated by ... from ...
stimulating hormones ... pituitary
causes the release of stimulating hormones
releasing factors from hypothalamus
a butterfly-shaped mass of tissue in your throat
thyroid gland
2 principle energy balance hormones
T3 (tri-iodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine)
T3 and T4 increase these 4 things
cellular respiration, breathing rate, body temp., glycogen breakdown
these 2 are made different by cells of the pancreas
insulin, glucagon
this responds directly to blood glucose
energy balance
both are lipophilic
T3, T4
this increases glucose storage
insulin
insulin increases the absorption of glucose from this in the kidney
filtrate
insulin increases this uptake by most tissues
glucose
this increases glycogen breakdown
glucagon
these store glucose as glycogen
liver and muscles
only this is sensitive to glucagons
liver
this is released bythe posterior pituitr
vasopressin (ADH)
ADH acts on collecing duct to...
regulate urine concentration
ADH increases these two things
blood volume and pressure
this is released by the adrenal cortex
aldosterone
releasing of aldosterone is stimulated one of these two things
ACTH or angiotensin II
Aldosterone increases these two things in distal tubules
sodium and water reaborption
this is a stress response
catecholamine
catecholamine is a stress response including this
epinephrine
catecholamine breaks this down
glycogen
catecholamine increases these 3 things
blood pressure, breathing rate, metabolic rate
this generates ATP - a lot is available for muscle contraction
metabolic rate
catecholamine changes this
blood flow patterns
changing blood flow patterns do these 2 things
increase alertness, decrease digestive and kidney activity
glucocorticoids include this stress steroid
cortisol
glucocorticoids breakdown these 2 things
protein and fat
glucocorticoids change the protein and fat into this
glucose
glucocorticoids suppress this
immune system
mineralocorticoids includes this
aldosterone
this stress steroid includes aldosterone
mineralocorticoids
absorption of water and sodium in distal tubule
aldosterone
mineralocorticoids raise these 2 things
blood pressure and volume
somatic hormones that bind to membrane tend to have...
more rapid effects
fast responses are difficult to produce using this
hypothalamic-pituitary axis
long term changes in gene expression are mediate by these
lipophilic hormones
this is released from hypothalamus into the anterior pituitary
GnRH
these are released from the anterior pituitary
FSH and LH
Gonadotrophins are these two hormones
FSH and LH
this acts on testis to regulate production of sperm
FSH
this regulates synthesis and release of sex steroid testosterone
LH
testosterone is an...
androgen
this can be converted to estrogen
testosterone
these exhibit negative feedback on anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
sex steroids
maturation of gametes in females change from ... to ... feedback producing a monthly hormonal cycle
negative...positive
egg cell surrounded by cells that nourish and protect the developing egg
follicle
formed by a ruptured follicle
corpus luteum
corpus luteum secretes these 2 things to maintain uterus during pregnancy
estrogen and progesterone
carries egg from ruptured follicle to uterus
oviduct
maintains developing fetus
uterus
the uterus includes this
endometrium
richly vascularized layer of tissue that is released every menstrual cycle
endometrium
gametes have half the genes
haploid
gametes have all the genes
diploid
this type of reproduction maximizes rate but reduces genetic variation
asexual
changes in reproductive physiology can change these 2 things
brains and behaviors
changes in social context can mediate changes in this
reproductive physiology
controls temperature of testes
scrotum
produces androgens
leydig cells
tubes in which sperm form
seminiferous tubules
carries sperm from seminiferous tubules
epididymis
provides area for sperm maturation
epididymis
muscular organ that propels ejaculate
vas deferens
secretes anticoagulants to facilitate flow of semen
prostate gland
occurs in the seminiferous tubules
spermatogenesis
reproduce through mitotic cell division
diploid sperm precursors
through this, 1 diploid spermatogonium will give rise to 4 ...
meiosis...haploid spermatozoa
occurs in the ovary
oogenesis
reproduce by mitotic cell division
diploid oogonia
diploid oogonia differentiate into...before birth
primary oocytes
each meiotic division produces ...
2 unequal haploid cells
small haploid daughter cell
polar body
each of these ultimately produces 1 haploid ovum and 2 haploid polar bodies
oogonium
mechanisms of meiosis ensure that the ovum is...
haploid
asymmetric cell divisions provide the ovum w/ a large amount of this
cytoplasm
newly formed diploid cell
zygote
fusion of sperm and egg relies on these 2 things
acrosomal reaction and cortical reaction
these reactions prevent these 2 potential mistakes
fertilization by the wrong species, fertilization by many sperm
want to combine 2 haploid cells to form 1 diploid cell
fertilization
mechanism by which a sperm cell fuses w/ an egg
acrosomal reaction
sperm ... comes in contact w/ the outer layer of the egg
head
as the sperm cell comes into contact w/ the jelly coat, the ... releases its hydrolytic enzymes
acrosome
the degradation of the jelly coat causes the extension of ...
an acrosomal process
binds receptors on ... of egg
surface
causes... of sperm and egg membranes
fusion
triggering rapid change in voltage of egg membrane prevents this
polyspermy
vesicles near the surface of the egg membrane
cortical granules
at fertilization, cortical granules fuse w/ the membrane and cause a separation of these 2
vitelline layer, egg plasma membrane
developing body should have some...
asymmetry
building a body requires the emergence of these
specialized tissues
building a body requires .... of these tissues into smaller, more precise parts
differentiation
the ... of these parts into the cell types that make up tissues and organs are required to build a body
maturation
the zygote nucleus quickly replicates an the large cytoplasm allows this
cleavage
rapid division of cell into many daughter cells
cleavage
different regions of the cytoplasm end up in different ...
daughter cells
unequal distribution of ... and ... in the zygote cytoplasm yields daughter cells w/ differences in these
mRNA and protein
asymmetry can be accentuated by unequal distribution of this
yolk
small ball of cells w/ a hollow pocket in the center
blastula
the blastula will give rise to the 3 embryonic layers through the process of this
gastrulation
invagination or infolding of the blastula
gastrulation
once the infolding has begun, refer to the embryo as this
gastrula
gastrulation results in 3 distinct tissue types
ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
these 3 tissues will ultimately develop into distinct organs through this
organogenesis
type of morphogenesis
organogenesis
involves specific changes in cell shape, position, adhesion
morphogenesis
immigration of cells produces a small hole on the surface of the blastula called this
blastopore
in birds and mammals a ... is produced from the immigration of cells
primitive streak
1st rudimentary organs produced from organogensis
neural tube and neural crest
neural tube and neural crest are formed from the ectoderm and give rise to this
Nervous system
cells migrate by ...
crawling along surfaces
migration of the cells along surfaces require this
adhesion
migration can be promoted or inhibited by molecules in the ...
extracellular matrix
these located on the surface of cells can also inhibit or promote migration
cell adhesion molecules
reveals that cells from particular places always result in particular structures
fate mapping
the coordination of morphogenesis requires cells to know their...
position
positional info. is stored in concentrations of these
protein and mRNA in cytosol, morphogens
are diffusible signals in ECF
morphogens
positional info. can also be stored in the presence of stationary protein signals in .... or in membrane of ...
the extracellular matrix ... adjacent cells
presence of one cell influences the identity of another
induction
groups of cells that induce neighboring cells
organizers
dorsal lip of the blastopore cells comprise this
Spermann's organizer
spermann's organizer tells cell they are this
dorsal
Spermann's organizer secretes various proteins that interfere w/ activity of a ... called ...
tyrosine kinase receptor ... BMP 4
BMP 4 tells cells they're on the ... of embryo
ventral side
proteins secreted by the organisms communicate dorsal position by suppressing this
BMP 4