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162 Cards in this Set

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Stereotype
Performed in the same way everytime.
Entrainment
Resetting of circadian clock by environmental cues.
Circannual rhythm
Internal annual clock rhythms.
Distance-and-direction navigation
Requires knowing distance and relative direction of destination.
Releaser
Stimuli that elecit a certain behavior
Suprachiasmatic nuclei
Location of the circadian clock. Usually abobe the crossing of the 2 optic nerves.
Piloting
Using environmental cues to determine location.
Culture
Transmission of learned behavior from generation to generation.
Circadian rhythm
Animal behaviors expressed in daily cycles.
Clock gene
Involved in generating circadian rhythm. (In fruit flies per & tim genes.)
Homing
Ability of an animal to return to its nest site or burrow.
Energetic cost
(Energy expended in performing the behavior) - (energy the animal would have expended had it rested)
Risk cost
The increased chance of being injured or killed as a result of performing behavior, compared to resting.
Opportunity Cost
Sum of the benefits an animal forfeits by not being able to perform other behaviors during the same time interval.
Photoperiod animals
Behavior is influenced by the length of a day. (i.e. indicate season change, etc.)
Migration
Seasonal movement between breeding and nonbreading grounds.
Phermones
Molecules used in chemical communication between individuals.
Ganglia
Clusters of neurons, the largest of which is the BRAIN.
Spinal Cord
Site of most information processing, storage, and retrieval.
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal chord.
Neurons
Specialized cells to receive information, enocide it, and transmit it to other cells.
Sensory Cells
Cells that transfer information to the CNS. Convert external stimuli to electrical impulses.
Effectors
Nervous system transmits signals to these. (i.e. muscles, glands,
Peripheral Nervous System
Neurons and supporting cells outside of the CNS. Communicates with the CNS. Can perform tasks on its own as well.
Nerve Impulses
Neurons generate these electical impulses.
Cell body
Contains nucleus and cell organelles.
Dendrites
Receive information from other neurons. Branches from the cell body.
Axon
The longest dendrite. Carry information away from the cell body. Conduct information to target cells.
Axon Terminal
Positioned at the end of the fine branches of the axon. Located close to the target cell.
Neurotransmitters
Released by signals from the axon terminal (stored inside of these). Chemical messenger molecules.
Synapse
Junction between target cell and axon terminal that facilitate their interaction.
Cerebral Cortex
It controls and integrates motor, sensory, and higher mental functions, such as thought, reason, emotion, and memory. Increases in size based on complexity of organism.
Nerve
Bundle of axons that carries information about many different events simultanesouly.
Afferent
Nerves that conduct impulses from the periphery of the body to the brain or spinal cord. (vision, hearing, and pain information)
Efferent
Carry information from the CNS to the muscles and glands of the body. Some are voluntary while others are involuntary. The CNS also receives chemical information via these channels.
Parallel Processing
Nervous system processes many different pieces of information at one time.
Reticular system
Alerts the forebrain. Afferents pass through here. Influences the level of arousal of the nervous system.
Limbic system
Most primitive parts of the forebrain. Responsible for basic physiological drives, instincts, and emotions. Electrical stimulations cause sensations of pain, pleasure, or rage.
Cerebrum
Regions of this interact to produce consciousness and control behavior.
Temporal Lobe
Involved in identifying, recognizing, and naming objects. FACIAL RECOGNITION. Neurons in this part of the monkey's brain respond to the sight of faces.
Parietal Lobe
Receives touch and pressure information. Damage results in Contralateral Neglect Syndrome.
Contralateral Neglect Syndrome
Results from damage to the Parietal Lobe. Individuals do not respond to stimuli from the left side of the body or left visual field.
Loss of Sleep
Impairs alertness and performance. Most people in society are chronically sleep deprived.
non-REM Sleep
(non Rapid Eye Movement) Divided into four stages. 3 and 4 are slow-wave, deep, restorative.
REM Sleep
(Rapid Eye Movement) Nightmares occur. Brain haults both afferent and efferent pathways. (i.e. a person dreams about running but cannot move.
Memory
Ability of the nervous system to retain what is learned and what is experienced.
Immediate Memory
Lasts only a few seconds and is almost perfectly photographic.
Short-term Memory
Lasts 10-15 minutes but contains less information than immediate memory.
Long-term Memory
Can be saved for years. Short-term memory is transfered here so it can be remembered.
Hippocampus
Important part of the limbic system. A person who looses this part of the brain can no longer admit information into long-term memory. Pre-existing long-term memories remain present in the brain.
Left Cerebral Hemisphere
Where language abilities are localized in the brain. Normal brain activities depends on the flow of information amount various areas of this.
Lateralization
The ability to localize funcitons to a specific brain hemisphere.
Consciousness
This is a "hard" problem and therefore scientists have no idea what this is.
Sensation
Depends one which cells of CNS receive a given signal.
Phantom Limbs
Felt even when limbs have been removed because the CNS neurons are still in place.
Mechanoreceptors/Stretch Receptors
Cells that are sensitive to mechanical forces. Responsible for sensation of touch, tickling, and pressure. Inform the body of the location of body parts. Present in the walls of blood vessels to alert the CNS of blood pressure changes.
Chemoreceptors
Detect chemical signals. Responsible for smell and taste. Monitor internal environment such as CO2 and O2 content.
Arthropod's use of Chemoreceptors
Female silkowrm moths release a pheromone. Male silkworms detect this pheromone on their receptors. This signals the males to fly upwind in search of the female.
Gustation
Sense of taste.
Taste buds
Clusters of sensory cells that allow gustation. NOT NEURONS. They die rapidly and reform (replaced every few days). Connect to long-living neurons.
Papillae
The raised bumps on the human tongue which are the site of many taste buds.
Olfactory Receptors
Required for gustation. Of or relating to the sense of smell.
Photosensitivity
The ability to be sensitive to light. Ranges from the ability to see to the ability to orient with the sun.
Photoreceptor Cells
Detect electromagnetic radiation of a given wavelength. (Detect the presence of light in simple organisms.)
Rhodospins
Molecules used for photosensitivity. When they absorb light they endergo a change in structure.
Ommatidia
Eye units in arthropods (simplisitc). Each has its on lense. Insects have hundreds to thousands.
Cornea
Located on the front of the eye and allows light passage.
Iris
Located inside the cornea. Regulates the amount of light passage.
Pupil
The region of the eye where light enters.
Lenses
Allow the eye to focus light. Mammals and birds alter the shape of their lenses to focus. These become elastic with age, requiring glasses.
Retina
Layers of cells that process information from the photoreceptors and produce an output signal transmitted by optical nerves.
Fovea
Area in the retina with the highest concentration of photoreceptors. Hawks have two of these so they can see their flight path and the ground.
Cones
Photoreceptors that are responsive to different wavelengths of light for color vision.
Rods
Photoreceptors sensitive to light intensity.
Eye Imperfections
Light must past through all the layers of cells before photons are captured by rhodopsin. There are not photoreceptors where blood vessels and bundles of axons are going to the brain pass through the back of the eye.
Blind Spot
Occurs because there are not photoreceptors on the retna where blood vessels and the optic nerve pass through the back of the eye.
Autotrophs
Trap solar energy through photosynthesis and use that energy to synthesize all of their components
Heterotrophs
Animals that eat other organisms to stay alive and derive their energy from this.
Detritivores, decomposers, scavengers
Heterotrophs that consume dead organisms (earthworms, crabs).
Predators
Heterotrophs that eat living organisms.
Metabolic Rate
Measure of the overall evergy needs that must be met by the animal's ingestion and digestion of food.
ATP
Provides the energy for cellular process.
Basal Metabolic Rate
In humans, the metabolic rate resulting from all of the essential physiological functions that take place in a resting state.
Carbohydrate Storage
Stored in the liver and muscle cells as glycogen.
Undernourished Animals
Animals that do not take in enough food to meet their energy requirements. Therefore, they must metabolize their own body for energy.
Carbon Skeletons
Certain basic organic molecules that animals require and cannot synthesize themselves.
Amino Acids
An example of CARBON SKELETONS. Some of these can be synthesized, while others must be aquired through food (8 essential amino acids). NECESSARY for PROTEIN SYNTHESIS.
8 Essential Amino Acids
Isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, trytophan, & valine
Vitamins
Carbon compounds that animals require for normal growth and metabolism, but cannot synthesize for themselves.
Most common food deficiency in the world
Insufficient Iron
Hypothalmus
Region of the brain that influences feelings of satiety and hunger.
Leptin
A protein that indicates satiety. Leptin receptors in the brain detect levels of this protein which related to body fat consumption. Obese individuals usually have plenty of leptin but have leptin receptors in the hypothalmus with reduced sensitivity.
Prey
Agents of natural selection that have evolved to be more difficult to predate upon.
Habitat
An environment in which an organism usually lives in. Animals seek habitats with good food supply, resting places, nest sites, and escape routes.
Habitat Choice
Genetic or environmental cues that indicate a good habitat for an organism.
EX:
RED ALBALONE -- guided to its habitat by chemical signals of a certain coral
Foraging Theory
A theory relating to how an animal looks and how it acquires food. Defined by objective of the behavior and constraints on possible choices. Determine the behavorial choices that yield best results.
Optimality modeling
Natural selection has molded the behavior of animals so that they solve problems by making the best choices available to them.
Example Constraint Relating to Food Consumption
Energy content of vegetation is low, herbivores must process large amounts of it; thus many herbivores spend a great deal of their time feeding.
Coevolution
Prey and predators evolve in a similar manner. Prey becomes more difficult to predate upon, and predators become more efficient consumers.
Mimicry
A defense mechanism in which an animal evolves to resemble an inedible or unpalatable item or organism.
Batesian Mimicry
Occurs when a palatable species micmics an unpalatable or noxious one.
Directional Selection
This causes unpalatable species to evolve away from their mimics. This happens because unpalatable individuals that look least like thier mimic will be preyed on less than individuals the mimic more closely resembles.
Mullerian Mimicry
Occurs through the convergence of appearance by evolution of two or more unpalatable species.
Polymorphic population
Population contains different genotypes.
Frequency-dependent selection
Fitness of a genotype or phenotype varies with its frequency relative to that of other genotypes or phenotypes.
Oscillation
Predator and prey populations oscillate. When prey is scarce, predator population is also scarce.

EX:
Hair and lynx (population based both on prey's interaction with food supply and predation by lynx)
Grazing
Involves a predator eating part of a plan without killing it. This can increase plant growth because it exposes younger leaves and removes dead ones.

(i.e. Scarlet Giglia - competition for light)
Species Richness
Number of species that live in an ecological community.
Keystone Species
Species that has major influence on its ecological community greater than would be expected based on its abundance.

(Urine of bison provide nutrients to plantlife)
Bison
Bison graze grass. Their urine also provides nutrients to plantlife.
Bioaccumulation
Toxins can become more and more concentrated in predators that eat contaminated prey.
Parasites
Smaller tahn their host and live inside or outside of their bodies. May live in a host for many generations without killing it.
Microparasites
Reproduce within their hosts because their generation times are much shorter. (bacteria, viruses, and protists). To survive, a knew host must become active before the orginally infected one dies.
3 Types of Host Populations
Susceptible, infected, recovered/immune
Virus
Composed of nucleic acid and a few proteins.
Viroids
Simplest virus, which are made up of only genetic material.
Virions
Individual viral particles outside the cell. Genetic material is either DNA or RNA.
Capsid
Protein coat surrounding genetic material in a virus.
Horizontal Transmission
Virus spread from one host individual to another.
Vertical Transmission
Virus spread from parent to offspring.
Virus Classification
Whether they contain DNA or RNA. Whether the DNA is single or double stranded. How many RNA molecules are present. Overall shape fo the virus or capsid shape. Do they have a membraneous envolope around the virion? Their host.
Bacteriophages
Viruses that attack bacteria.
Lytic Cycle
Occurs when the virus infects the cell, takes over the cellular machinery, and then lyses (bursts) the cell, releasing its phage progeny.
Lysogenic Cycle
The host cell does not burst; it harbors an inactive virus for many generations.
Virulent
Phages that only have lytic cycles.
Temperate
Viruses that infect hosts without killing them. They harbor themselves in the host.
Arbovirus
Infects both insect and mammals.
Vector
An insect carrying an arbovirus.
How animal viruses enter the cell...
1. Endocytosis of a naked virion.
2. Endocytosis of a membrane-encased virus.
3. Fusion of a membrane-encased virus with the cell's membrane.
HIV
Retrovirus. Complex reproductive cycle involving entering the cell via membrane fusion.
Viroids
Single-stranded RNA molecules. Only found in plants. Cause disease,etc.
Blood plasma
Suspends red and white blood cells and platelets.
Red blood cells
Found in the closed circulatory system and in the lymphatic system. Loose their nuclei before they become functional.
Lymphatic system
Branching stem of tiny capillaries connecting larger vessels.
Lymph nodes
Contain a variety of white blood cells, which INSPECT the materials that pass.
White blood cells
Move in and out of the circulatory system. Contain nucleus and organelles.
Phagocytes
WHITE BLOOD CELL. Engulf and digest nonself materials.
Lymphocytes
WHITE BLOOD CELL. Most abundant. T cells and B cells.
T cells
Migrate from the circulation to the thymus where the mature.
B cells
Circulate and also collect lymph vessels. Produce and secrete antibodies (bind specifically to certain substances).
MHC
Major histocompatibility complex. Helps distinguish between proteins that are self and nonself.
Cytokines
Signal proteins released by T cells that bind and alter the behavior of their target cells.
Innate Defenses
General protection mechanisms to stop pathogens. (i.e. physical and cellular barriers)
SKIN!
Normal flora
Bacteria and fungi that normally live on the surface of the body. They compete for space and nutrients with pathogens. Considered INNATE DEFENSE.
Lysozyme
Present in mucus and tear secretions. Attacks the cell walls of many bacteria.
Interferons
Produced by cells hat are infected by a virus. Increase resistance of neighboring cells.
Inflammation
Characterized by redness and swelling, and triggered by signals such as HISTAMINES.
Antigens
Organisms and molecules that are specifically recognized.
Diversity
Human immune system can distinguish and respond to ten million different antigenic determinants.
Autoimmune disease
An attack on one's own body. (lupus and rheumatoid arthritis)
Immunological Memory
Once exposed to a pathogen, the immune system remembers it and mounts future responses much more rapidly.
Humoral Immune Reponse
T"H". Involves antibodies, which recognize antigenic determinants on antigens.
Cellular Immune Response
T"C". Able to detect antigens that reside within cells. It destroys virus-infected mutated cells. Mainly T Cells. Have T Cell receptors.
Clonal selection
B Cells bind an antigen. B cell divides and differentiates into plasma cells and memory cells. Therefore, the antigen selects and activates a particular antibody-producing cell.
Effector cells
Carry out the attack on the antigen.
Memory cells
Live and reatin the ability to start dividing quickly to produce more effector and more memory cells.
Secondary response
Occurs when the same antigen is found in the body. The body rapidly creates antibodies. IMMUNOLOGICAL MEMORY.
Vaccination
Artificial Immunity. Inovles the introduction of whole pathogens, either weak or live or killed.
Clonal Deletion
90% of all B cells made by the bone marrow are deleted. DISTINGUISHING SELF FROM NONSELF. Elimination occurs by triggering apoptosis.
Apoptosis
Cell suicide.
Clonal Anergy
The suppression of immune response. CD 28 is required to innitiate T cell response.
Immunological tolerance
Fetus must be continuously exposed to antigen or else it becomes intolerant. Oppositeof autoimmune disease.