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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reproduction of cells
cell division
the life of a cell from the time it is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells
cell cycle
a cell's endowment of DNA, its genetic information
genome
packaged DNA
chromosomes
all body cells except the reproductive cells
somatic cells
reproductive cells (sperm and eggs)
gametes
a complex of DNA and associated protein molecules
chromatin
two chromatids, each containing an identical DNA molecule, that are attached to each other initially
sister chromatids
a specialized region where the two chromatids are most closely attached
centromere
the division of the nucleus, resulting in two, identical daughter cells
mitosis
cell division that results in 4, nonidentical daughter cells
meiosis
the phase which included both mitosis and cytokinesis, and is usually the shortest part of the cell cycle
mitotic (M) phase
the stage in which the cell grow and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell division
interphase
the phase in which chromosomes are duplicated
S phase
a structure consisting of fibers made of microtubules and associated protiens
mitotic spindle
a subcellular region containing material that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubules
centrosome
a radial array of short microtubules, extends from each centrosome
aster
a structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere
kinetochore
the imaginary plane midway between the spindle's two poles where the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes line up
metaphase plate
a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
cleavage furrow
produced by vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules to the middle of the cell, where they coalesce
cell wall
a type of cell division that involves asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes
binary fission
a specific place on the chromosome where the chromosome begins to replicate
origin of replication
a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
cell cycle control system
a control point where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cell cycle
checkpoint
a nondividing state
G-zero phase
enzymes that activate or inactivate other proteins by phosphorylating them
protein kinases
a protein that gets its name from its cyclically fluctuating concentration in the cell
cyclin
kinases that must be attached to cyclin to be active
cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
the complex that triggers the cell's passage past the G2 checkpoint into M phase
maturation-promoting factor/ M-phase promoting factor/ MPF
a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide
growth factor
a phenomenon in which crowded cell stop dividing
density-dependent inhibition
a phenomenon in which cells must be attached to a substratum, such as the inside of a culture jar or the extracellular matrix of tissue, to divide
anchorage dependence
the process that converts a normal cell to a cancer cell
transformation
a lump in which the abnormal cells remain at the original cell
benign tumor
a lump that becomes invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs
malignant tumor
the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site
metastasis
the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
heredity
hereditary units
genes
reproductive cells in animals and plants
gametes
a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of all its genes to its offspring
asexual reproduction
two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parents
sexual reproduction
the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism, from conception to production of its own offspring
life cycle
any cell other than those involved in gamete formation
somatic cell
an ordered display of chromosomes arranges in pairs, starting with the longest chromosomes
karyotype
the two chromosomes composing a pair that have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern
homologous chromosomes
the X and Y chromosomes
sex chromosomes
chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
autosomes
any cell with two chromosome sets
diploid cell
any cell with a single chromosome set
haploid cell
the union of gemetes, culminating in fusion of their nuclei
fertilization
the result of a fertilized egg
zygote
a type of life cycle that included both diploid and haploid stages that are multicellular
alternation of generations
the multicellular diploid stage in alternation of generations
sporophyte
Meiosis in a sporophyte produces haploid cells called:
spores
mitotic division generating a multicellular haploid stage in alternation of generations
gametophyte
stage that produces a diploid cell with replicated chromosomes
meiosis 1
stage that produces haploid cells with unreplicated chromosomes
meiosis 2
the process in which replicated homologs pair up and become physically connected along their lengths by a zipper-like protein structure
synapsis
genetic rearrangement between nonsister chromatids
crossing over
X-shaped region where nonsister chromatids remain connected while being pulled slightly apart
chiasma
individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from two different parents
recombinant chromosomes
a heritable feature that varies among individuals
character
varieties that, over many generations of self-pollination, produce on the same variety as the parent plant
true-breeding
the mating of two true-breeding varieties
hybridization
the true-breeding parents in a hybridization cross
P generation
the hybrid offspring of the P generation
F1 generation
the offspring resulting in F1 hybrids that self-pollinate
F2 generation
the two alleles for a heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes
law of segregation
a diagrammatic device for predicting the allele composition of offspring from a cross between individuals of known genetic makeup
Punnett square
an organism that has a pair of identical alleles for a character
homozygous
an organism that has two different alleles for a gene
heterozygous
an organism's appearance or observable traits
phenotype
an organism's genetic makeup
genotype
breeding an organism of unknown genotype with a recessive homozygote
testcross
heterozygous for one character
monohybrid
individuals heterozygous for two characters
dihybrid
each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation
law of independent assortment
phenomenon where the F1 offspring always looked like one of the two parental varieties because one allele in a pair shows ___________ over the other
complete dominance
phenomenon where neither allele is completely dominant, and the F1 hybrids have a phenotype somewhere between those of the two parental varieties
incomplete dominance
phenomenon in which the two alleles both affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
codominance
when one gene has multiple phenotypic effects
pleiotropy
a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus
epistasis
characters that vary in the population along a continuum (in gradations)
quantitative characters
an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
polygenic inheritance
phenotypic range for a genotype
norm of reaction
a family tree describing the certain traits of parents and children across generations
pedigree
heterozygotes that can transmit the recessive allele to their offspring
carriers
technique of extracting amniotic fluid to perform genetic tests
amniocentesis
technique of extracting a sample of tissue in the placenta to perform genetic tests
chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
the theory that Mendelian genes have specific loci along chromosomes, and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment
chromosome theory of inheritance
the phenotype for a character most commonly observed in natural populations
wild type
a gene located on either sex chromosome
sex-linked gene
disease in males characterized by a progressive weakening of the muscles and lack of coordination
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
a sex-linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting
hemophilia
genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together in genetic crosses
linked genes
offspring that inherit a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes
parental types
offspring with a phenotype combination unlike either parent
recombinant types (recombinants)
genetic map based on recombination frequencies
linkage map
the distance between genes
map units (centimorgans)
when the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meiosis 1 or sister chromatids fails to separate during meiosis 2
nondisjunction
condition in which a zygote has an abnormal number of a chromosome
aneuploidy
an aneuploidic zygote with 2n-1 number of chromosomes
monosomic
an aneuploidic zygote with 2n+1 number of chromosomes
trisomic
condition in which an organism has more than two complete chromosome sets in all somatic cells
polyploidy
when a chromosomal fragment is lost
deletion
when a chromosomal fragment reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse orientation
inversion
when a fragment from one chromosome joins a different nonhomlogous chromosome
translocation
aneuploidy condition resulting from an extra chromosome 21, often called trisomy 21
Down syndrome