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315 Cards in this Set

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formed by sharing electrons
covalent bonds
differences in this cause an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
electronegativity
asymmetric distribution of charge results in this
polarity
NaCl is an example of this bond
ionic bond
weak bonds that only occur when atoms and molecules are very close together
van der Waal's forces
weak bonds
hyrdogen bonds
leads to hydrogen bonding between water molecules
high polarity
bonding between water molecules
cohesion
bonding between water and other polar molecules
adhesion
molecules are polar, enabling them to form hydrogen bonds with water
hydrophilic
molecules are non-polar, they coalesce and form barriers to the movement of the opposite molecules
hydrophobic
measure of hydronium ion concentration, =-log[H+]
pH
pH 1-6
acidic
pH 7
neutral
pH 8-14
basic
forms 4 covalent bonds making it possible to make complex molecules
carbon with four electons in valence shell
vary in length, branching, double bonds, and rings and can contain a diversity of functional groups
carbon chains
how macromolecules are built, connects monomers by taking out water and breaks down monomers by adding water
dehyrdation
reverse of dehydration, breaks down something with water
hydrolysis
four major categories of biological macromolecules
carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
include sugars and their polymers
carbs
where energy is harvested from (glucose, galactose)
monosaccharides
where energy is stored in (glycogen, starch)
polysaccharides
made from fatty acids joined to glycerol molecules
lipids
all are hydrophobic and made from fatty acids
lipids
composed of 3 fatty acid chains bound to a glycerol molecule, triacylglycerol
fatty acids
made of hydrophobic tails and hydrophyllic head
phospholipid
2 fatty acids (tails), glycerol (head), phosphate group, functional group
composition of phospholipids that form phospholipid bilayer
other lipids, like steroids, are synthesized from this
cholesterol
polymers of amino acids
proteins
amino group, carboxyl group, variable group
composition of a protein
joins amino acids and grow by addition of amino acids at the carboxyl terminus
peptide bonds
amino acid sequence
primary
arrangements of polypeptides into regular structural units, alpha helix, beta pleated sheet
secondary
arrangements of polypeptides into regular structural units
beta pleated sheet
higher level interactions of primary and secondary structure
tertiary
combinations of protein subunits into tight complexes
quarternary
DNA, RNA, stores info., polymers of nucleotides
Nucleic Acids
have a ribose backbone
RNA nucleotides
have a deoxyribose backbone
DNA nucleotides
2 types of nitrogenous bases that DNA and RNA are composed of
purines and pyrimidines
have 2 carbon rings, A/G
Purines
has 1 carbon ring, C/T - DNA, U - RNA
Pyrimidines
act as a functional group for nucleic acids
nitrogenous bases
DNA has this because bases form hydrogen bonds, A-T and C-G
structual stability
if a DNA is composed of this it will be more stable
CG clamp
does not directly involve dehyration
polymerization of nucleic acids
activated by a charged triphosphate group
nucleotides
energy from the triphosphate bond is used to...
drive polymerization
DNA is used to make more DNA
replication
DNA is used to make RNA
transcription
RNA is used to make protein
Translation
every protein has a corresponding...
gene
the chemical reactions that take place in an organism comprise its...
metabolism
...alter molecules in a series of steps
metabolic pathways
release energy by breaking down complex molecules
catabolic pathways
consume energy to build complicated molecules
anabolic pathways
facilitate every step of either pathway
enzymes
the capacity to do work - to move matter against opposite forces
energy
the energy of motion
kinetic energy
the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
potential energy
a form of potential energy in molecules becuase of the arrangement of atoms
chemical energy
states that energy cannot be create or destryoed, we must acquire energy from other sources
1st law of thermodynamics
states that every energy transformation makes the universe more disordered
2nd law of thermodynamics
for something to happen without energy input, it must...
increase disorder
maintaining complex bodies requires...
energy
the portion of energy that can be harnessed to perform work
free energy
release energy (free energy goes down)
exergonic reactions
require energy (free energy goes up)
endergonic reactions
the conversion of ATP to ADP and Pi cause a reduction in...
free energy
for many chemical reactions, there is an energy barrier called...
the energy of activation
enzymes reduce the energy of activation by stabilizing reaction intermediates with...
an active site
because of these, we can store energy in the complex state of molecules and we can use the stored energy to perform work
energy barriers
how to change the abundance of enzymes
transcription, translation, and degradation
how to change the shape of enzymes
allosteric activators, allosteric inhibitors, and covalent modifications
alter tertiary or quarternary structure by binding in a way that stabilizes the active site of an enzyme
allosteric activators
de-stabilize the active site of an enzyme
allosteric inhibitors
include adding or removing phosphate groups
covalent modifications
surrounds all cells
plasma membrane
semifluid substance within the membrane
cytosol
all cells contain chromosomes made of...
DNA and associate proteins
tiny organelles that make proteins using the instructions from messenger RNA
ribosomes
in prokaryotes, the DNA is concentrated in... no membrane separates it from the rest of the cell
the nucleoid
in eukaryotes, chromosomes are within a...
membranous nuclear envelope
in eukaryotes, this is the region between nucleus and plasma membrane
cytoplasm
eukaryotes have a variety of ... of specialized form and function
membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotes are...than prokaryotes, reflecting surface-area-to-volume trade-off
larger
...allows eukaryotes to get by with smaller ratios, larger size
enhanced complexity
contains most genes and is enclosed by double membrane
nucleus
formed by fusing of double membrane, can allow macromolecules to pass
nuclear pores
inside of the nucleus, a network of intermediate filaments that maintain shape
nuclear lamina
within nucleus, DNA and associated proteins form fibrous material
chromatin
when cell prepares to divide, chromatin fibers coil up into...
chromosomes
in nucleus region of densely packed chromatin
nucleolus
where ribosomal RNA is synthesized and combines with proteins to form ribosomal subunits
nucleolus
subunits pass through nuclear pores to cytoplasm where they combine to form...
ribosomes
to perform protein synthesis, ribosomes use...
mRNA and tRNA
carry out protein synthesis - translation
ribosomes
made of rRNA and proteins, use mRNA as template, use tRNA to translate genetic code into amino acid sequence
translation
used to translate genetic code into amino acid sequence
tRNA
invaginations of nuclear membrane
endoplasmic reticulum
site of protein transcription, makes proteins headed for membrane or for secretion
Rough ER
functionally diverse; makes lipids, metabolizes carbs, becomes calcium store in muscle cells, detoxifies poisons
Smooth ER
receives vessicles from the ER and sends vesicles to destination organelle
Golgi Body
the side that receives vesicles from the ER
Cis
like stacks of pita, each modifying molecules in different ways; add and modify sugars, adds molecular tages to molecules to sort them
Cisternae
side that sends vesicles to destination organelle
trans
originate from golgi, fuse w/ food vacuoles to digest, very low pH, hydrolysis, ensures escaped enzymes cant function in normal cytosol
lysosomes
not part of endomembrane system, make H2O2, grows by incorporating lipids and proteins made in cytosol
Peroxisomes
highly reactive, breaks down fatty acids
H2O2
organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work, not part of the endomembrane system
mitochondria and chloroplasts
their proteins come primarily from free ribosomes in the cytosol and a few from their own ribosomes
mitochondria and chloroplasts
mitochondria and chloroplasts have small quantities of...that direct synthesis of the polypeptides produced by these internal ribosomes
DNA
mitochondria and chloroplasts grow and reproduce as...
semiautonomous organelles
sites of cellular respiration, generating ATP from the catabolism of sugars, fats, and other fuels in the presence of oxygen
Mitochondria
Mitochondria have a smooth outer membrane and a highly folded inner membrane called...
cristae
presents ample surface area for the enzymes that synthesize ATP, creates a fluid-filled space between membranes
cristae
site of photosynthesis in plants and eukaryotic algae
chloroplasts
chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy and synthesize new organic compounds from CO2 and H2O to make...
glucose
the chloroplast is one of several members of a generalized class of plant structures called
plastids
store starch in roots and tubers
amyloplasts
store pigments for fruits and flowers
chromoplasts
the chloroplast produces sugar via...
photosynthesis
chloroplasts gain their color from high levels of this green pigment
chlorophyll
have DNA that can replicate independently of nuclear DNA, have ribosomes drives from their own DNA, have double membranes
common traits of mitochondria and plastids
symbiotic relationship that leads to one organism engulfing another
endosymbiosis
close interaction between 2 species in which both benefit
symbiosis
DNA sequence that codes for rRNA and protein suggests these genes are more closely related to...than they are to genes in the nucleus
homologous genes in bacteria
complext network of protein filaments found throught the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton
stabilizes shape, generates movement, moves cell, direct intracellular traffic
cytoskeleton
hollow rods made of tubulin
microtubules
microtubules are made up of these which separate chromosomes during cell division
centrioles
microtubules are major components of...
motility structures
microtubules use this as a molecular motor
dynein
stabilize cell shape and anchor organelles
intermediate filaments
intermediate filaments make up the...
nuclear lamina
intermediate filaments include diverse kinds of...
proteins
intermediate filaments are the most... of cytoskeletal elements
stable
are polymers of the molecule actin
microfilaments
microfilaments contribute to...by pulling
cell shape
microfilaments use...as molecular motor, important for muscle contraction
myosin
proteins that change shape when phophorylated by ATP
molecular motors
cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded in one or both halves
fluid mosaic model
proteins that span both halves of lipid bilayer
integral proteins
proteins that are loosely associated with hydrophilic portions of integral proteins
peripheral proteins
proteins are..., both hydrophobic and hydrophilic
amphipathic
hyrdrophobic portions are...
anchored in the membrane
hydrophilic portions are...
in cytosol
fluidity of the membrane is shaped by particular...used and by abundance of...
phospholipids...cholesterol
cell is encased in lipids in order to control
movement into and out of the cell
molecules that dissolve in lipid bilayer and cross easily
hydrophobic
pass through membrane with difficulty
ions and polar molecules
regulate the transport of ions and polar molecules
proteins
movement of molecules across membrane w/o using energy, includes diffusion and facilitated diffusion
passive transport
tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space, driven by kinetic energy
diffusion
in the absence of other forces, a substance will diffuse down its..., decreases free energy and increases entropy by creating a randomized mixture
concentration gradient
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, a kind of passive transport
osmosis
3 types of solutions
hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic
solutions with the same solute concentration
isotonic
passive movement of molecules down a concentration gradient via a transport protein
facilitated diffusion
moves molecules against their concentration gradient using energy
active transport
transport protein changes conformation in response to ATP-dependent phosphorylation
allosteric transport
concentration gradient of 1 solute actively maintained w/ ATP, potential energy in conetration gradient used to change protein shape and transport 2nd solute, role of ATP is indirect
co-transport
moves molecules outward, involves movement of vesicles from the golgi appartus to the plasma membrane
exocytosis
important means of secreting enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters
exocytosis
moves molecules into the cells, involves taking extracellular material by forming vesicles
endocytosis
3 types of endocytosis
phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
engulfing, specific
phagocytosis
drinking, non-specific
pinocytosis
highly specific
receptor-mediated endocytosis
breakdown of food products, particularly proteins and nucleic acids, leaves behind ammonia
nitrogenous wastes
excretion technique that is cheap in terms of transport and metabolism
fish let ammonia diffuse out passively
excretion technique that is much less toxic, requires some metabolic investment
mammals combine waste products CO2 and NH3 to make urea
excretion technique that has little loss of water, expensive metabolically
birds produce uric acid
how animals regulate solute concentrations and balance the gain and loss of water
osmoregulation
concentration of solutes in water
osmolarity
typically live in osmotically predictable environments
osmoconformers
face differing demands depending on their environments
osmoregulators
small tubes that are in close contact w/ transport epithelium and the blood supply
tubules
blood is filtered by...
transport epithelium
additional waste products may be secreted into...
excretory tubule
remaining, concentrated fluid is...
excreted
outer part of kidney, isotonic to blood
renal cortex
inner part of kidney, hyperosmotic
renal medulla
functional unit of kidney
nephron
blood filtered; proteins and cells left in blood; water, ions, urea go into filtrate; rate regulated by RAS
glomerulus
water, ions, nutrients reabsorbed; filtrate volume reduced; pH regulated; wastes secreted into filtrate; urea not reabsorbed
proximal tubule
permeable to water, not salts; salts and urea concentrated in the ECF of inner medulla; water movement possible b/c of osmotic gradient
descending loop of Henle
permeable to salt, not water; poorly permeable to urea; reasbsorbs NaCl
ascending loop of Henle
regulates pH; regulates amount of NaCl and K+; susceptible to ADH; water reuptake regulates final volume of urine
distal tube
final reabsorption of NaCl, water; high urea diffuses out of filtrate, maintains osmotic gradient; water leaves filtrate, determining final concentration of urine
collecting duct
steep gradient means..
concentrated urine
loop of Henle...
concentrates urea in filtrate
resorption of that urea provides a steep osmotic...
gradient in medulla
organisms that make their own food; plants
autotrophs
can synthesize any macromolecule they need from basic organic building blocks
autotrophs
organisms that get their food from other organisms; animals
heterotrophs
describes what an animal does; the nutritional needs of an animal vary with this
life history
nutrients that can't be synthesized by an animal
essential
essential nutrients
amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals
available from animal sources, plants are less reliable sources, diverse vegetarian diet balances the shortcomings of any one food source
amino acids
double bonds btw adjacent carbons, must obtain from food, abundant in most food
fatty acids
small oragnic molecules that are often incorporated into proteins to complete tertiary structure, only small amts required, water- or fat-soluble,
vitamins
simple inorganic nutrients, small amts, some required in large amts
minerals
overconsumption of these vitamins can be toxic
fat-soluble
4 major processes of nutrient acquisition
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
herbivores and carnivores have these for ingestion
teeth
frogs and anteaters have these for ingestion
tongues
snakes and fish have this for ingestion
jaw
herbivores need these to grind food
molars
carnivores need these to tear and rip food
canines
digestion begins with this in mammals
salivary amylase
important for digestion even though it's primarily used for storage and mechanical preparation of food
stomach
where most digestion and absorption occurs
small intestine
animals lack enzymes needed to digest this
cellulose
herbivores have specialized storage areas to...
facilitate digestion
herbivores have a longer...to give bacteria time to break down the vegetation
cecum
ruminants (cows) have ... that can break down cellulose
symbiotic microorganisms
structures aiding digestion
stomach and small intestine
stomach secretes this from separate cells
HCl and pepsinogen
when HCl and pepsinogen mix, pepsinogen is cleaved to form ...
active pepsin
small intestine begins with ...
duodenum
duodenum is where these are mixed
bile, chyme, and pancreatic juices
it digests proteins, fats, carbs, and nucleic acids through hydrolysis
small intestine
these allow the small intestine to absorb nutrients
abundant blood vessels and active transport
surface area for absorption is increased by these
villi and microvilli
ensures that available food stores are mobilized during times of need and stored in times of plenty
feedback
they hormones regulate nutrition by regulating feeding behavior and food preferences
insulin and glucagon
energy is used to make ATP through this
cellular respiration
respiration occurs in 3 metabolic stages
glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
process of breaking down glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules in the cytosol
glycolysis
breaking down a derivative of pyruvate into CO2, in the mitochondrial matrix
krebs cycle
both occur in the mitochondria, this is where most of the ATP is made
Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
a sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy to make ATP
electron transport
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
oxidative phosphorylation
ATP, glucose, and glycogen energy currency
bioenergetics
readily available but not abundant
ATP
go through process to convert it
Glucose
last resort for energy
glycogen
much of an animal's energy is converted to...
heat
balance energy budgets against benefits of consistent high temp.
thermoregulation
for every...change in temp, reaction rates increase by ...
10 C...2-3 times
constant temp means
reliable reaction rates for cellular processes
2 basic bioenergetic strategies used by animals
ectotherms, endotherms
derive heat from envir., less energy loss
ectotherms
derive heat from celluar work, heat is generated by metabolism, more energy cost
endotherms
principles of heat transfer
radiation, evaporation, conduction, convection
constricting blood vessels to insulate heat
vasoconstriction
dilation of blood vessels to emit heat
vasodilation
sweat, pant, bathe skin
evaporative heat loss
shiver, brown fat
change metabolic rate
special tissue that is specialized for rapid heat production
brown fat
alter position to alter heat change or evaporation
behavioral response
reduction of activity and temp. to conserve energy
torpor
hibernation (annual), estivation (seasonal), daily torpor
conserve energy
uptake of O2 and discharge of CO2
gas exchange
this reduces need for gas exchange
low metabolic rates
out-folding of the body suspended in water
gills
gills must be... because waer oxygen is low
ventilated
how gas exchange is enhanced
counter-current exchange
elaborate open ducts
tracheal systems
large air sacs w/ convoluted surface for exchanging gases, just under epithelium, uses circulatory system to transport oxygen, evolved
lungs
how a frog ventilates; takes air into mouth, closes mouth and nostrils, pushes air into lungs
positive-pressure breathing
how mammals breath; diaphragm contracts, floor drops, ribs raise, air gets sucked in
negative-pressure breathing
volume of breath
tidal volume
maximum tidal volume
vital capacity
total lung volume - vital capacity
residual volume
partial pressure refers to the ... of a gas
concentration
respiratory pigments bind this
O2
respiratory pigments in arthropods
hemocyanin
respiratory pigments in vertebrates
hemoglobin
this increases uptake in lungs and reduces relesase in target tissue
binding O2
if this level rises, pH drops and curve shifts
CO2
pH drop produced by reaction of CO2 and H2O to make this
bicarbonate
most free protons give off by bicarbonate absorbed by...
hemoglobin
Most ... is carried away by hemoglobin
CO2
as CO2 diffuses away ... and ...
equilibrium shifts...bicarbonate is converted to CO2
blood
circulatory fluid
allows blood to move
vessels
exerts pressure on the blood to make it move
heart
amount of force exerted by heart to make blood move
blood pressure
what insects have, no distinction between blood and intestinal fluid, 1 or more hearts, blood vessels run into sinuses
open circulatory system
mixture of blood and intestinal fluid
hemolyph
little openings adjecent to cells that blood vessels run into
sinuses
animals have this, ciculatory fluid is kept seaparate from intestinal fluid, can have specialized cells
closed circulatory system
closed circulatory systems, 2+ hearts, 1+ atriums, 1+ ventricle, arteries, veins, capillaries, capillary beds, reflect phylogeny
vertrbrate circulatory systems
evolutionary relationship of a group
phylogeny
receiver of blood (in the heart)
atrium
pumps away the blood (in the heart)
ventricle
2 circuits of the circulatory system
pulmonary and systemic
lungs
pulmonary
rest of body
systemic
blood movement is restricted by these
valves
borders the atrium and ventricle
atrioventricular
borders ventricle for leaving blood
semilunar
heart contraction is set off by the firing of these specialized cardiac muscle cells
nodes
3 layers of the general structure of a blood vessel
outer layer of elastic connective tissue, middle layer of smooth muscle, inner layer of endothelium
take things away from the heart, have thick walls
arteries
bring things to the heart, has valves
veins
pores between the cells
capillaries
rate of blood flow at any moment across the circulatory system
constant
velocity ... as area increases
drops
pressure... with distance from heart
drops
thick artery walls help maintain ...
high blood pressure
capillary area...
reduces blood pressure
veins have... because of capillary resistance
low blood pressure
this helps return blood
contraction of skeletal muscle
contains cells suspended in plasma
blood fluid
90% water
plasma
3 cell types
red blood cell, white blood cell, platelet
erythrocytes, carries hemoglobin
red blood cells
part of the immune system
white blood cells
involved with clotting
platelet
cells are derived from...
pluripotent stem cells
low oxygen stimulates the release of ...
erythropoetin