Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/120

Click to flip

120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Number of Spieces known and predicted is?
1.4 million known species.

40 million species estimated to exist on earth.
What is the hummingbird's specific adaptation, predicion on bird flight adaptation of the wings, and what is unique about their flight?
* Wings beat 25x per second
*Wings flap like twirling blades (Helicopter)
*Symmetrical in wing cross section
*Allow backward flight
What is the Kestrel's specific adaptation, predicion on bird flight adaptation of the wings, and what is unique about their flight?
* Bird of prey
* Hovers in search of prey
* Excellent Eyes
* Uses wind to hover
* Turn into the wind to dive
What is the Peregrine Falcon's specific adaptation, predicion on bird flight adaptation of the wings, and what is unique about their flight?
* Fastest bird in air
* dives for prey
* Accel. to 200 mph
* Sweeps wings back to achieve max aerodynamics
What is the Barn Owl's specific adaptation, predicion on bird flight adaptation of the wings, and what is unique about their flight?
* Slowest bird in air
* Wings give max lift at slow speeds
* Hunt by acute hearing
* Fly silently
* Fly quick so they can hear the sound of their prey
What is the Osprey's specific adaptation, predicion on bird flight adaptation of the wings, and what is unique about their flight?
* Falcon
* Posseses large wing surface for max lift
* Fish for large prey
* Maninpulate it's prey to achieve most aerodynamic position
How long ago did insects master flight before other organisms took air?
* 100 million years before other life forms took air
What variations of insect wings have adapted?
* 2 pairs of wings (Dragonflies)
* Foldable wings
* Bee wings are hitched together, smaller and faster
* Beetle wings are protective covers
* Fly wings have gyroscope
How does the scientific process differ from other life forms?
*WEPA
* Wonderment (Observation)
* Explanation (natural tendancy of the human mind)
* Prediciton (Hallmark of Science) Testing the correctness of explaination
* Application Technology
What is the inportance of predictive power in scientific theory?
* the theory is determined to be scientific based on their power of prediction
* Non predictive theories are not considered scientific theories
How do human chromosomes determine sex?
* 23rd pair of chromosomes determine sex.
* X chromosome is larger, the y is smaller.
Male? Female? Sex chromosome?
* XX- Women
* XY- Men
Sex determination?
SRY gene detects male/femalenes.
When does it occur in human embryos?
It occurs at early embryotic stages. The embryo has he genetic info to be male or female. (over 48 hour period)
Natural path for human sex determination?
The SRY gene triggers the Y chromosome set sthe development path for maleness.
* If no trigger then a female develops.
Normal developmental pattern for males and females?
* Trigge in the Y chromosome sets path for males to develop testes and produce testosterone when the protein is present.
* When not present, the the female pattern follows and ovaries are developed.
Role of the Y chromosome in sex determination?
The Y chromosome changes to be male if the maleness trigger is present, and a female if not triggered. (Turns to XX Female and XY male)
What is the maleness trigger?
* The SRY Gene
What is the default body plan if an SRY Gene is not present?
* Female
What is AIS? Another name for AIS?
* Anodren insensitive syndrome
* Also known as Testicular Femilinzation
* SRY Gene is present and normal on the Y Chromosome
* The body misses the gene that is necessary to respond to the effect of testosterone.
* Never develops the male body plan
How can an individual have the genotype to be XY but have the phenotype to be a female?
* Their gene is missing or nonfunctional in their Y Chromosome
* Without the SRY Gene switch protien, the reproductive precursor cells will proceed to develop into the female body form, ovaries.
How can a female XX have the male secondary sex characteristic?
* The Y chromosonal material may override resulting in a XX male.
Prokaryotes? Eukoryotes?
* Prokaryotes-lack a membrane enclosed nucleous and organelles.
* Eukaryotic- contains a membrane enclosed nucleous and organelles.
Pnuemonia? (Include infammation with bacteria, WBC, and fluids)
Infectious inflammation of the lungs, in witch fluid accumuates in the alveoli.
* Puss filled lungs prevent gas exchange
* Bacteria invades the lungs and white blood cells attack them.
Respiratory tree and alveoli?
Picture from what is the function of the lung??
Upper and lower dementions of the Biological world?
* Smallest independant life form is a mycoplasma at .5 um (free living cell) or 20 nm for a virus.
* The larges is a Sequoia Trees 100 meters
What is the human visual resolution?
* The ability to distinguish two nearby objects is about .1 millimeter
* Most familiar with 3 feet
All matters are composed of??
*Atoms
What are atoms composed of?
* Subatomic particles, electrons, protons, and neutrons
Human knowledge ranges from?
* 10 exponent 25 meter to 10 exponent negative 16 meters covering a range of 10 to the 43rd meters.
* (1 light year is 10 to the 16th meter)
Big Bang Theory?
* The dominate scientific theory about the orgin of the universe.
* The universe was born 13.7 billion years ago.
* It suggests that the universe started as a tiny clump of matter smaller than a pearl.
* Inflation triggered a hyper fast expansion enlarging the universe trillion trillion trillion fold.
* Hurled matter in all directions.
* THis is suggested b/c it explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from us at great speeds.
When did the universe cool after the Big Bang? What did it result in?
* 370,000 years after, resulting in the formation of stable atoms.
Early universe contained on _____ (and some helium) the simplest element.
* Hydrogen
What happened with Hydrogen?
* Clouds of hydrogen begins to condense, pulled by their own gravity.
* The condensing hydrogen formed early stars, 100x bigger than the sun.
The massive stars are short lives. How short lived?
* 2-3 million years
How did these huge stars die?
* A huge explosion known as a Hyper Nova.
The sun is composed of ___ % Hydrogen and ___ % Helium?
* 70% Hydrogen and 30% Helium.
what happens in the core of the stars?
* Hydrogen atoms fuse to form helium withthe release of an enormous amount of energy.
What happens as stars start to exhaust their hydrogen?
* They start to fuse helium to form other elements.
How many heliums fuse to form one carbon?
* Three
What are the five characterisicts of life?
* Life reproduces, metabolizes, captures energy, evolves, and adapts.
What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction? (miracle of human beings, # of cells, babies born each day, organs, and tissues)
* From single cells to 100 trillion cells
* Hundreds of diff tissues
* Dozens of oragans
* 9 months
* Over 360,00 births a day
Asexual Reproduction?
* Duplication of DNA
* Bacteria
* replication of DNA as a 4 billion yr old process
* Simple
* Form clones
* Vairaions only from mutation
Sexul reproduction?
* Advantage, unique combination
* 99.9% of life uses sexual reproduction
* Mixing DNA from 2 individuals
* Every offspring has a unique combo. of DNA
* Advantage of survival amidst changes
Difference between meiosis and mitosis?
* Mitosis- Somatic Cells, one cycle of cell division, 2 diploid daughter cells
* Meiosis- Gametes, 2 cycles of cell divison, 4 haploid gametes
Define Haploid?
* The state of having one copy of each chromosome per nucleus or cell. A cell having one chromosome set, or an organism composed of such cells.
Define Diploid.
* The state of having each chromosome in two copies per nucleus or cell. A cell having two chromosome sets, or an individual having two chromosome sets in each of its cells. This can be seen by the presence of 2 of each type of chromosome in a cell nucleus at interphase.
Define Autosome.
* Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Define somatic cell.
* Mitosis (occurs in)
* A cell that is not destined to become a gamete; a cell whose genes cannot be passed on to future generations.
How many chromosomes are included in haploid and diploid cells?
46 diploid, 23 haploid
Gametes have what occurs meosis or mitosis?
* Meiosis
What is recombination?
* Exchanging genes between chromosonal pairs genreating unique combination of genes.
How many chromosomes are in a normal diploid somatic cell? If you had an extra chromosome in each cell, the the count would be 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46.
If you had an extra chromosome in each cell, the the count would be 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46.
How many chromosomes did you receive from your father? Your mother?
* 23 from each for a total of 46.
How many sperm are ther per ejaculate?
* 200-300 million
What is the defective rate of sperm per ejaculate?
* 60%
Where is new sperm constantly made?
* Seminiferous Tublues
Where does sperm enter the fallopian tube?
* Through the cervix
What allows the sperm to enter the egg's zona? Where does this occur in the female reproductive system?
* Protiens
* Fallopian Tube
When does the female acquire all the eggs she will have for a lifetime?
* At birth
There are a few million eggs at birth, and they are reduced by puberty. How many are in each ovary at this time?
* 200,000 per ovary
When is the egg release and how long is it viable?
* It is released during ovulation and vaible for approximatley 12-24 hours.
What protects and nurtures the eggs?
* Support cells
How long does it take a fertilized egg to start dividing?
* About 24 hours
What time does the egg implant into the uterus?
* About the 5th day
What is the process of blastogenesis?
* Zygote to a morula to a blastocyst
How long after does it take for the three germ layers to be produced?
* Two weeks after conception
Endoderm?
* Inner
* Lung, liver, gut lining
Mesoderm?
* Middle
* Heart, muscle, bone, and blood
Ectoderm?
* Outer
* Nervous system, spinal cord, skin, and hair
How many elements occur naturally on Earth?
* over 90
How do the natural Earth elements differ from one another?
* By the # if of protons
What percent of living matter are composed of oxygen, hydrogen, and Carbon?
* Greater than 93%
Plants contain significatnly less _____ and _____ than animals.
* Nitrogen
* Calcium
Why is carbon the chemical fondation of life?
* Carbon bonds well, is abundant, and is the base of all likekly forms of ilfe on Earth.
What is the source of carbon?
* Carbon is made in the stars
How many chemical bonds can a carbon atom form?
* Can form bonds with 1,2,3, or 4 other atoms
Which of the following biological molecules contain nitrogen? Nucleic Acids, Protiens, lipids, or Carbohydrates?
* Nucleic Acids
Where has life been found?
* Earth, but signs of water on Mars and Jupiter's moon Europa
What are the three central conditions of life?
* Elements (Water, energy, nutrients, salt consentration)
* Pressure
* Temperature
What makes water such a good solvent?
* Water can dissolve many other chemicals because of it's uneven charge distribution.
* Ionization (All charged molecules can dissolve in water through this)
What is ionization?
* A process by which a neutral atom or molecule loses or gains electrons, thereby acquiring a net charge and becoming an ion
How does water cause ionization?
* It causes reactions in the body.
* It causes a neutral atom to gain or losed an electron so that it can become an ion because H2O has an uneven charge.
What are the signs of water on Mars?
* Ancient Ocean floor in Northern hemisphere
* Image of ancient river beds& lakes that were onced filled up with water.
What did NASA say twin orvers discoverd in the Martian rock?
* Discovered sedimentary layers laid down with water
Where is Europa?
* A large moon off of Jupiter
What is on the surface of Europa?
* Thin ice crust
* Cracks that could be an ocean 3x the size of ours
What causes the ice to melt underneath the surfaceof Europa?
* Sources of heat enregy from internal friction caused by the gravity of Jupiter andit's other moons.
What is chemical energy? What is the ultimate source of energy for living organisms?
* Chemical energy is stored in the bonds of chemical compounds
* Sunlight
How does energy release from chemical compounds?
* By breaking these bonds.
What are the three components of the plasma membrane?
* Lipid Bilayer- cellular communication
* Membrane Protiens
* Selectivev permeability
Prokaryote?
* Cell wall
* Cell membrane
* No nucleus
* No organelles
Eukaryote?
* Animal – no cell wall
* Plant – cell wall
* Nucleus
* Organelles
What is the basic function of the Nucleous oraganelle?
* DNA
What is the basic function of the Mitochondria oraganelle?
* Energy metabolisim
What is the basic function of the Lysosome organelle?
* Digestive
What is the basic funstion of the Chloroplast organelle?
* Photosynthesis
What is the basic function of the Endoplasmic recticulm
* Protein synthesis
What is Endosymbiosis signifacance with prokaryotes?
* Prokaryotes gave rise to the first Eukryotic cells in the process known as endosymbiosis.
What is the significance of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek?
* invention of a hand held microscope
that sees 300x magnification. The first person to observe and describe microscopic organisms and living cells.
How can living cells be observed? What did they allow?
* light microscopy to scanning electron microscopy
* This allowed a wide variety of specimens with physical and medical sciences.
Characteristics of Protista,single cell organisms, eukaryotes, ameoba, paramecium, plasmodium, algae, and seaweed?
* Single-cell organisms
* All eukaryotes
* Animal-like: amoeba, paramecium, plasmodium (causing malaria) * Plant-like (photosynthesis): algae, seaweeds
*Colonial formation – giant kelp
* Motiliy – flagella and cilia
* Sexual and asexual reproduction
What is a colonial oraganism?
*Collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a close group
* Most cells carry out specific functions
* Straddle the border between unicellular and true multicellular organisms
* they lack tissues and organs, but have cell specialization
What is the significance of the discovery of insulin? What else is important in the discovery?
* Discovered in 1921
* Without it diabetics would die exremely fast
* Fredrick Banting and Charles Best isolated insulin from a cow pancreas.
Define Diabetes?
*A disease in which insulin is not produced enough in the body, islet cells are distroyed, and it is an autoimmune disease.
What is the cause, consequences, clinical symptoms, and treatment of IDDM?
* Type one or Insulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus
* Occurs in younger people
What is the cause, consequences, clinical symptoms, and treatment of NIDDM
* Noninsulin Dependant Diabetes Mellitus
* Occurs in adults (4 F's)
Family, food, fat, and forty)* 90% to 95% of diabetics are this type.
*Insulin tolerance
* Insufficient insulin production
* Problems with insulin receptors
* Use insulin
* Bone marrow transplants
What is the cause, consequences, clinical symptoms, and treatment of Gestational Diabetes?
* High sugar level affects fetal development
* Premature birth
* Diabetic coma and death for pregnant women
* Insulin treatment
* Bone marrow transplants
Consequences of diabetes mellitus?
* Death
* Diabetic Coma
* No cure
Consequences of ketacidosis?
* Keytone production is lowering of blood pH to an acidic pH.
* If this persists, a diabetic coma can occur.
Consequences of a diabetic coma?
* This can cause death.
* insulin levels are too low which produces Ketones
Where is insulin produced? (cells)
* This is produced by the Beta Cells of the Islet of Langerhans within the Pancreas
Future cures for diabetes?
* There is no cure
* Hopefully the use of stem cell research will produce a treatment or cure
Define glucose.
* Glucose is a simple sugar, an energy source, and a building block for complex carbohydrates.
Define glycogen.
* This is the stored version of glucose.
* In Animal cells
* In plant cells this is starch
The role of insulin and glucagon?
* Glucagon is produced in the pancreas with insulin.
* This is used in between meals or exercise in order to keep glucose levels high enough.
* Insulin is used when glucose levels are high in order to break down some of the sugars.
Define Hyperglycemic.
* This is when blood glucose level is too high.
Define hypoglycemic.
* This is when blood glucose level is too low.
.
.
.
.