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38 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
maintains constant conditions
-Temp, pH, salt concentration, nutrient concentration, 02/CO2 levels
Positive Feedback
Modulate stimulus to enhance the effect.
ie-progression of labor
extracellular fluid
interstitial (in between cells)
plasma
Integrator
interprets stimulus (set points)
Central Nervous System
Hydrophylic vs. Hydropholic
Hydrophylic-anything w/ water
Hydropholic-w/out water
Integrator
interprets stimulus (set points)
Central Nervous System
Negative feedback
Modulate stimulus to inhibit the effect
Most are this type.
Response to heat or cold.
ions
gain or lose electrons
Polar vs. nonpolar compounds
polar-anything w/ a charge
nonpolar-w/out a charge
sensory receptor
detects a stimulus (cell detects something is wrong)
Effector
Appropriate respose to a stimulus. Signals sent oout to fix a problem.
ie-sweat
Intracellular Fluid
cytoplasm.
covalent bonds
unequal covalent bonding-partial bonding
-ie. water
Dissolving
Stronger salt is taken apart by weaker H2O molecules b/c there are more of the weaker H2O molecules.
pH (adids and bases)
1. H2O split 2. Covalent bond disrupted
3. Left w/ OH- and H+
4. Process continues until something is added to disrupt H2O
5. Add extra H+ (becomes acidic)7 or +
Add OH- (becomes base)
Carbos
Broken down, used for energy
Polysaccharides
Chains of Carbos
Lipids
Fatty acids
Triglycerides
3 fatty acids
Phosphate
interacts w/ water
Amino acids
hooked together by Peptide bonds
Hemoglobin
Connected to sickle cell anemia (broken proteins) one failed protein
Nucleic acids
Twisted chain containing instructions on how to build proteins and how to perform certain life functions
ATP
Molecule cells used to store energy (rechargable battery)
Bone tissue functions
Support, protection, assist movement, mineral bank, blood cell protection (hemopoesis-red marrow), energy storage (adipose tissue-yellow marrow)
Tissue components
25%water
25%protein fibers
50%mineral salts
Epipheral line
Reveals where bone growth has stopped
Bone remodeling
Generated bone tissue gets digested out and replenished
osteoblasts
young bone-forming cells that cause the hard extracellular matrix of bone to develop
osteocytes
mature bone cells that maintain the structure of bone
Osteoclasts
Bone-dissolving
Ostoeprogenitor
undifferentiated stem cell
compact bone
-concentric rings of matrix
-central canals and perforating canals-contain arteries
-Lacunae contain osteocytes;(connected to eachother)
Spongy bone
irregular latticework
spaces filled w/ red bone marrow
site of hemopoesis
Bone formation
formation from hyaline cartilage
Chondrocyte-makes cartilage
Epiphyseal plate-lengthwise growth of bones (growth plate)
Adult bone, epiphyseal plate gets calcified
Growth in diameter
Osteoclasts-active on endosteal side
Osteoblasts-active on periosteal side
Axial skeleton
skull, hyoid, auditory ossicles, vertebral column, thorax (sternum and ribs)
Appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdles (clavicle and scapula)
Upper extremities (arm bones)
Pelvic girdle
Lower extremities (leg bones)