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45 Cards in this Set

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EVOLUTION
a change in the gene pool
over a period of time.
EARTHS CRUST
-James Hutton- rock formations
appear, change and disappear
over long periods of time.
*LAW OF
SUPERPOSITION*
- in rock layers, the bottom
layer is the oldest
PANGEA
-Alfred Wegner
-Theory of continental drift
FOSSILS
-any preserved evidence of life
-provides evidence that organisms
have changed over time.
FOSSILS-1
-most fossils are of organisms
that no longer exist.
FOSSILS-2
-some species are older than others
FOSSILS-3
principle of fossil succession
-charles lyell: fossils that are
found in deeper rock layers are older.
-shows an abundance of species change over time.
-fossils can arrange "family trees"
-fossils can arrange intermediate species
-Archaeopterix
found in bavaria
reptile with feathers and furculum
changed to modern birds
(feathers and no teeth)
COMPARATIVE
ANATOMY
-organisms with similar
ancestry have similar characteristics
HOMOLOGOUS
STRUCTURES
similar structure, but different function
ANALOGOUS
STRUCTURES
similar function, but different structure
VESTIGIAL
ORGANS
organs that are useless to the present organism,
but serve an important function in other species.
ex. appendix-
homologous to the cecum
ex. coccyx- homologous to the tail
ex. pelvic/hind limb bones-
homologous to whales and boas
EMBRYOLOGY
many related organisms show
similar development
EMBRYOLOGY 1
gill slits-
reptiles, birds and mammals
EMBRYOLOGY 2
tooth buds- whales and birds
EMBRYOLOGY 3
tails- all mammals
EMBRYOLOGY 4
egg laying-
- oviparous:egg laying animals
ex. dinosaurs, birds, reptiles
- ovoviporous: eggs hatch within the
mother and are born alive
- viparous: mammals that give live birth
BIOGEOGRAPHY
study of the geographical
distribution of organisms
BIOGEOGRAPHY 1
ADAPTIVE RADIATION
various species develop
from a common ancestor
BIOGEOGRAPHY 2
ENDEMIC SPECIES
a species found in only one region
BIOCHEMICA
EVIDENCE
- use of ATP
- DNA or RNA for genetic material
- similar enzymes
HISTORY OF
EVOLUTION-1
Jean Baptiste de Lemarke-1809
-organisms could aquire traits that make them better
adapt to the environment
-traits could be passed on
-evolution could occur in one lifetime
(giraffe- long necks from stretching
to reach leaves)
HISTORY OF
EVOLUTION-2
Charles Darwin and Alfred R. Wallace
.Natural Selection
-"survival of the fittest"
-genetic variation allows survival traits
to accumulate and eventually occurs in
the entire population
-Weaker Traits Die out
-Individuals vary genetically: inherit parents' genes.
-Organisms produce more offspring
than the environment can suppuort.
-Pop. remains constant=
not all offspring survive.
-environment is constantly changing
but slowly
-environment determines who will survive.
HISTORY OF
EVOLUTION-3
Galapagos Islands-
-organisms reached these volcanic
islands by flying, swimming and drifting.
HARDY WEINBERG
LAW
-predicts the genetic results of
random mating
--no evolution can occur if all of the
following conditions are met:
*no mutations
*no selectionpressures
*no mating preferences
*Isolation:
No Exchange of outside genes
*large population
STRUGGLE FOR
EXISTENCE
Robert Malthus
-Nature Puts pressure on an
organism's ability to reproduce
--Food, Shelter, Weather,
Predators, Climate, Competition...
ADAPTATION
-process in which a population
becomes better suited to the environment
--gene mutations provide
variation which increases chances
for survival in an environment
MIMICRY
the imitation of one species
to that of another for protection
FIT
the ability to mature and
reproduce viable offspring
TRENDS IN
EVOLUTION
In order for evolution to occur,
the Hardy Weinburg law must
be disrupted.
TRENDS IN EVOLUTION 2-
CAUSES OF EVOLUTION
-mutation
-migration
-genetic drift
-natural selection
-speciation
-extinction
CAUSES OF
EVOLUTION 1
mutation- provides variation
CAUSES OF
EVOLUTION 2
migration- movement of an organism
*Gene Flow*
-movement of genes
a) immigration- to come into a population.
b) emigration- to leave a pop.
CAUSES OF
EVOLUTION 3
genetic drift- drastic changes in allele
frequency caused by random events
-usually occurs in small populations
-Ex. earthquakes, fires, floods
CAUSES OF EVOLUTION 4
- Natural Selection
most important contributing factor
NATURAL SELECTION a)
stabilizing selection
-individuals with average
traits have the highest fitness
NATURAL SELECTION b)
directional selection
-individuals with most extreme
form of a trait have the highest fitness
Ex. Anteater with longest tongue
has the better chance of survival
NATURAL SELECTION c)
disruptive selection
-individual with either extreme
form of a trait has the higher fitness
-Ex. limpets, white and dark do
better than speckled
NATURAL SELECTION d)
sexual selection
-males exhibit extreme
traits to affect females
-Ex. peacocks
CAUSES OF EVOLUTION 5
- SPECIATION
-the formation of a brand-new
species
SPECIATION a)
sympathetic speciation- AKA "sympetry"
-organisms that live in the same area
-Ex. Flowering plants may
cross-breed and form a new species.
SPECIATION b)
allopatric speciation- AKA "allopatry"
-organisms that live in different areas
-geopatric isolation
-Ex. Islands, rivers, canyons
CAUSES OF
EVOLUTION 6
- EXTINCTION
-complete loss of all species
-approx. half of all species that
have ever walked the earth are
now extinct
TYPES OF
EVOLUTION-a)
convergent evolution-
-Unrelated species become
more alike due to the similar environment
-similar adaptation
-sharks and dolphins are an example
TYPES OF
EVOLUTION-b)
divergent evolution
-many species coming away from
a common ancestor
--they move away from a
similar environment
--1. Adaptive radiation
--2. No changes for long periods
of time, then sudden changes.