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25 Cards in this Set

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SPONTANEOUS
the process of living things coming about from nonliving things
A-SEXUAL
process of one living thing making 2 new living things (by itself)
MITOSIS
the process of one cell dividing into 2 new cells with the same chromosomes
MEIOSIS
the process of making 4 sex cells from one cell (each new cell is a haploid)
HAPLOID
cells that have half the normal number of chromosomes
DIPLOID
cells that have 2 copies of each chromosome (most cells are like this)
DOMINANT
a gene you always see because it overpowers the weaker gene
RECESSIVE
a gene that is weaker nd is only seen if there are two copies of it
HOMOZYGOUS
having 2 copies of the same gene
HETEROZYGOUS
having 2 different genes (one dominant & one recessive)
PHENOTYPE
what an organism physically looks like (like having blue eyes)
GENOTYPE
what types of genes a person has (like Bb, etc.)
DNA
stores information for your cells and is shaped in a double helix
NUCLEOTIDES
this chemical is the building block of DNA and RNA (A, C, G, and T or U)
CHROMOSOME
a whole bunch of DNA wound up (we have 46 in each cell)
GENE
a section of DNA that has information for one trait (we have 1000s)
TRANSCRIPTION
the process of making a messenger RNA copy of DNA
TRANSLATION
the process of reading the RNA and making the right proteins
NUCLEUS
the place where DNA is stored
RIBOSOME
the part of the cell that puts proteins together
mRNA
this makes a copy of the DNA(because the DNA can't laeve the nucleus)
tRNA
this carries the right amino acids to the ribosome
CODON
three nucleotides (letters) of RNA that tells the ribosome one amino acid
AMINO ACID
a chain of this is a protein (building block or proteins is this chemical)
PROTEIN
molecules in our body that makes us what we are (for example melanin gives us skin color, insulin controls how we use sugar, keratin makes up our hair and nails, etc.)