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31 Cards in this Set

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How are the bases paired in the DNA molecule?
Held together with weak hydrogen bonds.
What are the 2 scientists that discovered the DNA molecule?
Watson & Crick
What makes up the "sides
of DNA?
Phosphate & Sugar
What makes up the "rungs" of DNA?
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine

A G T C
What type of bond is between base pairs?
Hydrogen
Where is DNA found?
nucleus
What does DNA stand for?
deoxuribonucleic Acid
What is DNA?
the complete instructions for manufacturing all the proteins for an organism.
What is replication?
Copy of DNA
What are the parts of a nucleotide?
Simple sugar, phosphate, Base (A,T,G,C)
What is the replicated strand of the following DNA molecule:
A G T C A T C G A C A T G

T C A G T A G C T G T A C
What is a codon?
3 base sequence code for aminoacid.

Example: AGU
What is the base pairing rule when dealing with RNA?
A-U Rna doesn't recognize T, so uracil is used.
Where does the mRNA originate?
nucleus
Where does it go?
cytoplasm ----- ribosome
The sequence of what in DNA determines the genetic code?
nucleotides (phosphate, sugar, bases)
Where does transcription take place?
nucleus
Where does translation take place?
cytoplasm ------- ribosome
The process of protein synthesis involves what 2 parts?
transcription, translation
What do amino acids form?
protein
What is translation?
Takes place in cytoplasm at a ribosome according to the mRNA instructions.
What is transcription?
Takes place in the nucleus, mRNA is made form DNA template
What is an codon?
3 base pair sequence which is the code for specific amino acid.
What are the characteristics of DNA?
double strand, simple sugar, deoxiribose, thymine, does not leave nucleus
What are the characteristics of RNA?
single strand, simple sugar - ribose, uracil (not thymine), does not read, moves in and out of nucleus.
A mutation is any mistake or change in the DNA
DNA
A point mutation is a change in
single base pairs DNA
A mutation in which a single base is added to or deleted from DNA is called
frame shift
Many chromosome mutations result when chromosomes fail to separate properly during ______ (cell division in body cells.)
mitosis
An agent that can cause a change in DNA is called a (n)
mutagen
What is an anticodon?
A specific sequence of three nucleotides in transfer RNA