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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three Main Types of RNA
1. Messanger RNA
2. Ribosomal RNA
3. Transfer RNA
Messanger RNA
serves as a messenger from DNA to the rest of the cell
Ribosomal RNA
proteins are assembled on ribosomes, robisomes are made up of several dozen proteins as well as a form of RNA
Transfer RNA
transfers each amino acid to the ribsosome as it is specified by coded messages in mRNA
RNA molecules are prodcued by copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence in RNA
RNA Polymerase
required by transcription, unzips the RNA
Events During Transcription
1. RNA plymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strand
2. RNA polymerase then uses one strnad of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA
the region an enzyme will only bind to
consists of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the polypeptide
the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins
the three bases on the tRNA molecule and are omplementary to one of the mRNA codons
Griffith's Experiment
injected mice with disease cuasing strain of bacteria and found out about transfermation and DNA
one strand of bacter is changed into another form of bacteria
Avery and DNA
repeated Griffiths work, discovered that DNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organsim to the next
composed of a DNA or RNA core and a protein coat, it enters a bacterium, and attaches to teh surface of the cell and injects its DNA into it
Hershey and Chase Experiment
concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA, not protein
units of DNA
Nucleotides are made up of
1. a five carbon sugar called deoxyribose
2. a phosphate group
3. nitrogenous base
Different Kinds of Nitrogenous Bases
1. Adenine and Guanine-purines:
2. Cytosine and Thymine-pyrimidines: one ring
Chargaffs Rules
obversation that a=t and c=g
Rasalind Franklin
used x ray diffraction to get information about the structure of the DNA molecule, recoreded the scattering pattern and carried important clues about the structure of DNA
Watson and Crick's Model of DNA
a double helix in whcih two strands were wound around eachother
Base Paring
for every one thymine colecule there had to be one adenine molecule, for each cytosine molecule, there wa sone guanine moleule
intervening sequences that are cut out of the RNA while they are still in the cell nucleus
expressed sequences and are spliced back together to form the final mRNA
Where are DNA molecules located in prokaryotic cells?
What is the large DNA molecule usually refered to as>
the cell's chromosome
How many times the amount of DNA does Eukaryotic have compared to prokaryotic?
1000 times
Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells?
the cells nucleus in the form of chromosomes
How long is a DNA strand for humans
about 1 m
DNA and protein tightly compacted together
protein molecule in which DNA is tightly coiled in a chromatin
DNA and histone form a beadlike structure
What do nucleosomes do?
able to fold enormous lenths of DNA into the tiny space available in the cell nucleus and regulate how genes are read to make proteins
DNA Replication
1. the DNA molecule spearates into two strands
2. produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base paring
3. each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template for a new strand
Replication Forks
the site where replication occurs
How do enzymes unzip DNA
unzipping occurs when the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs are broken and the two strands of the molecule unwind
the principal enzyme involved with replication, it plymerizes individual nucleotides to produce DNA, it also proof reads each new strand