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29 Cards in this Set

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HE said that dead smooth bacteria passed their disease causing substance to the rough living bacteria
Griffith
HE discovered that adenine bonds with thynine and cytosine bonds with guanine
Erin Chargaff
THEY discovered and put together DNA structure in 1953
Watson and Crick
SHE took first picture of DNA looking down at it
Rosalind Franklin
What are the results of the lab that Griffith conducted to find a vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae?
the rat died when injected with live smooth bacteria, and Live rough + dead smooth, but it died when injected with live rough bacteria and dead smooth bacteria
What's the nucleotide's structure of DNA?
Phosphate Group (PO4), 5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose) and a nitrogen base
What are the 4 nitrogen bases and which ones are purines and pyrimidines? Which ones are double ringed?
Adenine and guanine are purines and they are double ringed, and thmine and cytosine are pyrimidines and those are single ringed
Which bases bonds with witch? How many hydrogen bonds are between each nitrogen base?
Adenine and Thynine have 2 hydrogen bonds because they have 2 polar sites and Guanine and Cytosine have 3 hydrogen bonds
Definition for Gene, codon and amino acid
gene- specific sequence of nucleotides that codes for one protein
codon- 3 lette sequence that codes for an amino acid
amino acid- NH2 on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other
What does a sequence of amino acids make?
A protein
DNA and RNA is needed to make...
PROTEIN!
Name 4 differences between DNA and RNA
-DNA contains deocyribose and RNA contains ribose sugar
-DNA is double stranded and RNA is single stranded
-DNA bonds A-T and C-G n RNA bonds A-U and C-G
-DNA never leaves the nucleus and RNA can leave the nucleus
what are the 3 types of RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA
what does each RNA do?
mRNA- copies the DNA
tRNA-picks up the amino acids and places it somewhere
rRNA- the ribosome
What is the role of RNA and DNA?
DNA contains the instructions for making proteins in the form of genes and RNA is the molecule that actually does all the work of putting the protein together
What is a brief description of transcription?
Information in DNA that is "rewritten" as a molecule of mRNA
What is a brief description of translation?
Information is "deciphered" to build a protein
Which enzyme breaks hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases?
Helicase
Which enzyme brings new nucleotides and bonds them to existing strands?
RNA Polymerase
Where does transcription occur and what enzymes does it uses?
Occurs in the nucleus and uses RNA polymerase
What's the initiator codon? and what does it code for?
AUG. Methionine
Describe transcription step by step
1. Helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds
2. The DNA strand breaks apart
3. RNA Polymerase brings in mRNA nucleotides and matches them with their DNA complement
4. mRNA nreals awau from the DNA strand and goes to the ribosome (in the cytoplasm)
5. DNA strand is put back together
What happens to the mRNA before it leaves the nucleus?
It's spliced; enzymes cut out introns and splice exons together. *mRNA is the gene used to make protein
What is the result of trnaslation?
a polypeptide or a protein
Where does translation occur and what does it use to bring an amino acid to the ribosome?
It occurs in the ribosome in the cytoplasm, and it uses an anticodon that the tRNA carries
What is the "deciphered mRNA code?
the anticodon
if the mRNA codon was AUG, what would be the tRNA anticodon?
UAC
Describe translation step by step
1. mRNA reaches the ribosome (rRNA)
2. tRNA brings the anticodon and amino acid to the ribosome
3. as the tRNA drops the amino acid at mRNA, the ribosome forms a polypeptid bond between the amino acids
4. once the stop codon is reached, the protein is complete
Where does the protein travel to next and what happens to it there?
It reaches the Golgi Apparatus where it is folded