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63 Cards in this Set

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Infectious Diseases
Diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can be passed from human to human or by some environmental element.
Communicable
Contagious!! Passed from human to human.
Non-comunicable
Not passed from human to human. (I.E. Diabetes, heart disease, cancer etc)
Bacterial Shapes
Bacillus (Bacilli-plural)-Rod shaped
Coccus (Cocci)- sphere shaped
Spirilla- spiral shaped
Spirochetes- corkscrew shaped
Vibrious- comma shaped
Binary Fission
Process by which bacteria reproduce( splitting in half. eeewww)
Endospores
Bacterial Eggs (Eeeewwww!!)
Tough exterior
resists desication (drying up, acids, teemps.)
Can last several thousand years.
Toxins
Some can be released while bacteria is alive, others, only after they die. Bad for a person.
Protozans
Single celled Eukaryotic microorganism.
Larger than bacteria and have a more complex internal structure.
Amoeboids
Gelatinous blob that moves by cell membranes called pseudopoda-"sort of feet"
Flagellates
Move with whip like appendage
Ciliates
Move by short hair
Sporozoans
Not mobile. Ex. Plasmodium- causes Malaria.
Reservoirs
Source of pathogen
Potential source of disease
(Ex. Raccoons are resevoirs for rabies.)
Vectors
Animal that transmits pathogenic microorganism to humans.
(Ex. Ticks, mites, lice, mosquitoes)
Outbreak
Large # of cases of disease in a limited area and it eventually subsides.
(Ex. Meningitus)
Epidemic
Large # of cases of disease in a larger area. (Ex. Flu)
Pandemic
When an epidemic spreads to several large areas worldwide.
(Ex. Small pox, measles)
Endemic
Disease occurs at low #s naturally at all times in a populations.
(Ex. Strep, rabies)
Neoplasm
Mass of new cells that grow in a haphazard fashion with no control and NO Useful Functioning!
Malignant
Tends to spread and can possible cause death. (Metastisizc)
Benign
Non-cancerous
Causes of cancer
Environmental factors
Chemicals (Ex. benzene, xylene, arsnic)
Possible causes: PCB's, DDT, Formaldehyde, Ionizing radiation.
Carcinogens
Environmental factors that increase the probablity of developing cancer.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Building blocks of humans, a "blue print" for protein synthesis.
Chromesomes
Subunit of DNA
Genotype
Genetic coding for traits
Phenotype
Physical manifestations of genetic coding
Heterozygous
Alleles are different.
The Dominant is still expressed if carried.
(Ex. Aa)
Homozygous
Alleles are the same.
Recessive traits must be homozygous to be expressed.
(Ex. aa)
Dominant Genetic Defects
Dominant Gene is expressed
(Ex. Galactsemic- person lacks enzyme to convert galactose into gluclose)
Recessive Genetic defects
Both genes must be carried in order for defect to be expressed.
Sex linked Genetic Defects
Mostly affect men.
not on Y chromesome, but on X Chromesome.
(Ex. color blindness, balding, hemophilia.)
Familial diseases
Diseases that appear in families, but the inheritance is not well undrestood.
(Ex. Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, addictions etc)
Turner's Syndrome
(45 Chromesomes, appear to be XO)
Appear to be female, but ovaries don't develop and therefore, individuals are sterile.
Kleinfelter's Syndrome
(47 Chromesomes) Extra chromesome is on sex chromesomes. Usually appear to be XXY. Appear to be male, but testes dont develop. Lack secondary characteristics of men (Ex. Facial hair, abnormally tall with extremely long legs, mental deficiences, sterile)
Malnutrition
Individuals do not recieve enough of certain nutrients including minerals, vitamins, amino acids or ions.
Effects of Malnutrition
Neurologic- decrease in cognition, decrease in consciousness, decrease in coordination, numbness and tremors. <br />*Decrease in thyroid hormones and decrease in testosterone (men or estrogen (women)<br />*Develop Dysrythmias, lower heart rate, lower blood pressure and an enlarged heart.
Vitamin Deficiencies
Niacin-leads to Pellagra- lack of meat
*Vitamin C- scurvy- bleeding gums, hemorrhaging- lack of citrus fruits and green veggies
*Vitamin A- tired, night blindness- dairy products, veggies
*Vitamin D- Rickets- Fortified milk and sunlight
*vitamin K-hemorrhaging- made in large intestine.
Mineral Deficiences
Iron- Anemia, hemoglobin formation.
*Iodine-goiter-thyroid problems
*Calcium- muscle contraction, bone formation, blood clotting.
*Potassium- nerve activity, heart and muscle functioning
*Sodium-water balance, nerve and muscle activity.
Obesity
Abnormal amount of fat deposited in adipose (fatty) tissues.
Causes of Obesity
Improper Diet (Ex. too much processed sugar, processed grains, fast food.)
*insufficient exercise
*genetic prediposition
Treatment for Obesity
Must be "reprogrammed"
Go to doctor
Amphetamines- increase energy
Regular exercise
Complications of Obesity
Atheroscierosis- plaque buildup in arteries
*fat deposits around lungs and heart- make heart work harder, less O2 gets around in body.
*Osteoarthritus
*Type 2 Diabetes
*Decreased liver function
Alcoholism
DEpendence on alcohol mentally, emotionally, physically. Disrupts relationships, possible neglect of children, threatens job
Causes of Alcoholism
Childhood disturbances
*insecurity
*hostility
*depression
Signs/symtoms of Alcoholism
Periods of intoxication become more regular and more severe. <br />*Start having "blackouts"<br />*Guilt "I need to quite drinking"<br />*missing work or apps.
Effects of Alcohol on Digestive system
Bears brunt on effects. <br />Gastritus- inflamation of stomach lining.<br />*Liver- tissue destruction and scarring.
Effects of alcohol on nervous system
Effects depend on amount and time of drinking. <br />Nerve excitability-release from depressive state. (short term)<br />*"Organic Brain Syndrome"-impaired judgement, poor ability to concentrate. <br />*Wenicke's Enceptalopathy-Individual becomes momentarily confused. May experience delusions or amnesia.<br />*myelin deterioration.
Effects of alcohol on Cardiovascular system
Can lead to progressive heart failure (heart just quivers)
Effects of alcohol during pregnancy
Alcohol can cross placenta. Can lead to mental retardation and other handicapps based on amount and when in development alcohol was taken in.
Treatments
AA
Carcinogenesis (3 stages)
Development of cancer
1) Initiation
2) Promotion
3) Progression
Signs and Symptoms of cancer
Pain is seldom a sign
*Change in bowel or bladder habits
*A sore that does not heal
*Unusual bleeding or discharge
*Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
*Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
*Obvious change in a wart or mole
*Nagging cough or hoarseness
(CAUTION)
Carcinoma
Type of cancer (need more)
Sarcoma
Type of cancer (need more)
Benign Tumors
Neoplams that is benign (non-cancerous)
Lipoma
Tumor in fatty tissue
Myoma
Tumor in muscle
Angioma
Tumor composed of blood vessels
Nevus
Mole
Adenoma
Benign glandular tumor
Teratoma
Benign tumor of the ovary
Cancer Prevention
Best defense is self examination and early detection.