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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is digestion?
Digestion is the breaking down of large, complex , insoluble materials of food into simple, small, soluble molecules.
What is ingestion?
Ingestion is the taking in of food materials (from the mouth in humans)
What is absorption?
Absorption is the diffusion of small soluble molecules from the alimentary canal to the blood stream
What is assimilation?
Assimilation is the taking out of food molecules from the blood to be used by body cells in the processes of respiration, growth and development
What is egestion?
This is the removal of insoluble or indigestible food from the body
What are the two types of digestion?
Physical or mechanical digestion and chemical digestion
What is mechanical digestion?
This is the process in which food is physically broken up into smaller pieces by the teeth and a churning movement of the alimentary canal
What is chemical digestion?
This is the process in which large food materials are broken down in the body to smaller molecules. It involves chemical changes of food molecules, and enzymes are used in the process.
Name two groups of food which do not need to be digested.
Simple sugars, vitamins, minerals, and water
What does digestion change each of these kinds of food into: (a) polysaccharides (b) proteins, (c) fats?
Polysaccharides- simple sugars
Proteins- amino acids
fats- fatty acids and glycerol
Show how fats are broken down mechanically and chemically.
Teeth break up fats inro smaller pieces. Bile salts break the large drops of fat to smaller ones. Fat molecules are broken down by the lipases into fatty acids and glycerol
Show how proteins are broken down mechanically and chemically.
Protein is broken up by teeth, then water from digestive juices dissolve proteins. Protein molecules are then broken down by proteases into polypeptides, and peptidases break down those into amino acids.
Show how carbohydrates are broken down mech. and chem.
Teeth break down carbohydrates to smaller pieces. Water from digestive juices dissolve pieces.Starch molecules are broken down by amylase into maltose. Maltase breaks down maltose into glucose molecules
What are catalysts?
These speed up chemical reactions and alter the rate of the chemical reaction without being changed itself.
What are the catalysts in living organisms called?
Where are digestive enzymes present in the body?
Digestive juices
What are digestive enzymes?
Catalysts that speed up the breakdown of large molecules into smaller substances.
What is the breakdown called when food is broken down
Hydrolysis (because water is involved (lysis means splitting, and hydro means water)