Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/374

Click to flip

374 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
list the two functions of fertilization?
to create genetic variation and fuse a sperm cell with and egg, and form a diploid cell known as a zygote.
Describe the acrosomal reaction and explain how it ensures the gametes are conspecific.
1.) contents of acrosome are expelled and enzymes are released digest a pathway through eggs jelly layer and allow sperm to reach vitelline envelope of egg. 2.) polmerization of actin into microfilamentast that form acrosomal process. finally, plasma membranes of egg and sperm fuse. sperm nucleus, mitochondria, and centriole enter egg. sperm and eg nuclei fuse--forms zygote.
explain the cortical reaction.
3. layer splits off of the egg. The egg has a whole series of vesicles at surface that fuse and dumps contents into the vatellin layer. Molecules are there to increase osmolarity to fill with water and pull the surface away. Then hardens and becomes a permanent surface. To get a vesicle to fuse with surface you need a small change in the calcium. It comes from the endoplasmic reticulum that has extra calcium. Need to trigger its release from the ER, the signal comes from the sperm, might take a min to take place from once side of cell to the other side of the cell.
explain how the acrosomal and cortical reactiosn function sequentially to prevent polyspermy.
4. The entry of a sperm causes calcium ions (Ca2+) to be released from storage areas inside the egg. In response to the dramatic increase in calcium concentration, a series of events occurs in the egg. For example the cortical granules located just inside the membrane fuse with the egg cells plasma membrane and release their contents to the exterior. The contents of the crtical granules include proteases that digest the exterior-facing fragment of the egg-cell receptor for sperm. In addition, other compounds from the cortical granules are trapped between the egg cell’s plasma memebrane and the vitelline envelope and cause water to flow into the space by osmosis. The influx of water then causes the envelope matrix to lift away from the cell and form a fertilization envelope. The fertilization envelope, in turn keeps additional sperm from contacting the egg membrane.
describe the changes that occur in an activated egg and explain the importance of cytoplasmic materials to egg activation.
5. *The cytoplasmic determinants direct cleavage in the egg. New RNA start to be produced after the twelfth cleavage division. Until then, development is directed by cytoplasmic determinants. The cytoplasmic determinants also orientation the mitotic spindle. The orientation of cleavage is controlled by the mitotic spindle. Different pigment cells might mark individual cells and allow researchers to follow their fate as development progressed. The fate is what the cell is likely to become in the adult individual. (p.455)
describe the process of gastrulation and explain its importance.
7. Gastrulation radically rearranges cells and results in formation of gastrula, which contains the three embryonic tissue types. The three tissue types are extoderm, mesoderm, endoderm. PROCESS-
• blastula contain cytoplasmic determinants that determine their fate during gastrulation.
• Gastrulation begins with the formation of an opening midway between the poles. Cells from the surface move to the interior through a blastipore.
• The blastocoel shrinks as the surface cells continue to move inward, forming the three embryonic tissue layers
• The three embryonic tissue layers are formed, ready for organogenesis. The blastopore (future anus in frogs*) surrounds a plug of yolk cells.
list adult structures derived from each of the primary tissue layers.
• Ectoderm
i. Nervous system, cornea and lens of eye, epidermis of skin, epithelial lining of mouth and rectum.
• Mesoderm
i. Skeletal system , circulatory system, lymphatic system, muscular system, excretory system, reproductive system, dermis of skin, lining of body cavity
• Endoderm
i. Epithelial lining of: digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive track, and urinary tract.
ii. Liver, pamcreas, thyroid, parathyroids, thymus.
distinguish between meroblastic cleavage and holoblastic cleabage.
holoblastic- total cleavage
meroplastic- partial cleavage
list and explain the functions of the extraembryonic membranes
1. amnion
a. thin, ectoderm-derived innermost membrane
b. produces amniotic fluid to bath embryo
c. reptiles, bird, and mammals are referred to as amniotes.
2. yolk sac
a. endoderm-derived
b. associated with nutrition in reptiles and birds
c. retained in mammals because it is the source for primordial germ cells and
original circulating blood cells
3. allantois
a. endoderm-derived
b. reptile/birds – reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange
c. mammals – associated with fetal-maternal interface at placenta
4. chorion
EXTRAEMBRYONIC MEMBRANES
Four sets of extraembryonic membranes common to vertebrates.
a. mesoderm-derived, outermost layer
b. reptile/birds – gas exchange
c. mammals – involved in respiration, nutrition, excretion, filtration, and hormone
synthesis by producing fetal placenta
differentiation
process by which a cell becomes a cell becomes a particular cell type by differential gene expression
morphogenisis
process of embryonic development during which cells become organized into arecognizable tissues, organs, and other surfaces.
fertilization
the union of a sperm and egg
explain the cortical reaction.
3. layer splits off of the egg. The egg has a whole series of vesicles at surface that fuse and dumps contents into the vatellin layer. Molecules are there to increase osmolarity to fill with water and pull the surface away. Then hardens and becomes a permanent surface. To get a vesicle to fuse with surface you need a small change in the calcium. It comes from the endoplasmic reticulum that has extra calcium. Need to trigger its release from the ER, the signal comes from the sperm, might take a min to take place from once side of cell to the other side of the cell.
explain how the acrosomal and cortical reactiosn function sequentially to prevent polyspermy.
4. The entry of a sperm causes calcium ions (Ca2+) to be released from storage areas inside the egg. In response to the dramatic increase in calcium concentration, a series of events occurs in the egg. For example the cortical granules located just inside the membrane fuse with the egg cells plasma membrane and release their contents to the exterior. The contents of the crtical granules include proteases that digest the exterior-facing fragment of the egg-cell receptor for sperm. In addition, other compounds from the cortical granules are trapped between the egg cell’s plasma memebrane and the vitelline envelope and cause water to flow into the space by osmosis. The influx of water then causes the envelope matrix to lift away from the cell and form a fertilization envelope. The fertilization envelope, in turn keeps additional sperm from contacting the egg membrane.
describe the changes that occur in an activated egg and explain the importance of cytoplasmic materials to egg activation.
5. *The cytoplasmic determinants direct cleavage in the egg. New RNA start to be produced after the twelfth cleavage division. Until then, development is directed by cytoplasmic determinants. The cytoplasmic determinants also orientation the mitotic spindle. The orientation of cleavage is controlled by the mitotic spindle. Different pigment cells might mark individual cells and allow researchers to follow their fate as development progressed. The fate is what the cell is likely to become in the adult individual. (p.455)
describe the process of gastrulation and explain its importance.
7. Gastrulation radically rearranges cells and results in formation of gastrula, which contains the three embryonic tissue types. The three tissue types are extoderm, mesoderm, endoderm. PROCESS-
• blastula contain cytoplasmic determinants that determine their fate during gastrulation.
• Gastrulation begins with the formation of an opening midway between the poles. Cells from the surface move to the interior through a blastipore.
• The blastocoel shrinks as the surface cells continue to move inward, forming the three embryonic tissue layers
• The three embryonic tissue layers are formed, ready for organogenesis. The blastopore (future anus in frogs*) surrounds a plug of yolk cells.
list adult structures derived from each of the primary tissue layers.
• Ectoderm
i. Nervous system, cornea and lens of eye, epidermis of skin, epithelial lining of mouth and rectum.
• Mesoderm
i. Skeletal system , circulatory system, lymphatic system, muscular system, excretory system, reproductive system, dermis of skin, lining of body cavity
• Endoderm
i. Epithelial lining of: digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive track, and urinary tract.
ii. Liver, pamcreas, thyroid, parathyroids, thymus.
distinguish between meroblastic cleavage and holoblastic cleabage.
holoblastic- total cleavage
meroplastic- partial cleavage
list and explain the functions of the extraembryonic membranes
1. amnion
a. thin, ectoderm-derived innermost membrane
b. produces amniotic fluid to bath embryo
c. reptiles, bird, and mammals are referred to as amniotes.
2. yolk sac
a. endoderm-derived
b. associated with nutrition in reptiles and birds
c. retained in mammals because it is the source for primordial germ cells and
original circulating blood cells
3. allantois
a. endoderm-derived
b. reptile/birds – reservoir for wastes and mediates gas exchange
c. mammals – associated with fetal-maternal interface at placenta
4. chorion
EXTRAEMBRYONIC MEMBRANES
Four sets of extraembryonic membranes common to vertebrates.
a. mesoderm-derived, outermost layer
b. reptile/birds – gas exchange
c. mammals – involved in respiration, nutrition, excretion, filtration, and hormone
synthesis by producing fetal placenta
differentiation
process by which a cell becomes a cell becomes a particular cell type by differential gene expression
morphogenisis
process of embryonic development during which cells become organized into arecognizable tissues, organs, and other surfaces.
fertilization
the union of a sperm and egg
zygote
fetilized egg
acrosome
enzymes found on head of sperm cell that helps dissolve zona pellucida or jelly layer on egg.
acrosomal reaction
a response that is triggered by contact between the sperms head and the jelly layer
acrosomal vesicle
holds acrosome in sperm
acrosomal procerss
a protrusion that extens until it makes contact with the viteline envelope
bindin
protein that is on the head of a sea urching sperm that binds to the surface of the eggs in a species- specific- manner
vitelline layer
outside plasma membrane, fibrous, mat-like sheet of glycoproteins, surrounds egg, in humans=zona pellucida
fast block to polyspermy
formation of fertilization envelope
cortical granules
small vesicles filled with enzymes that are involved in fertilization in egglaying animals. synthesized, transported to cell surface and bound to inner surface of plasma membrane as egg matures
cleavage
rapid cell divisions that take place in animals after fertilization
blastomeres
cells created by cleavage divisions
vegetal pole
yolk-rich reagion
meroblastic cleavage
cleavage is restricted to only part of the cell
holoblastic cldavage
cleavage plane cuts through tentire cell, including
morula
an embryo at an early stage of embryonic development, consisting of approximately 12-32 cells
blastocoel
cerntral region of a blastula (or blastosphere). It is filled with fluid.
blastula
sphere of cells that formss when cleavage is complete
gastrulation
coordinated cell movements that result in a formation of a layered body structure.
blastopore
small pore of vertebrate embryo, through which cells move during gastrulation
gastrula
embryo after gastroulation with three germ layers but with no nerve cord
invagination
indentation in cell that starts gastrulation
archentron
primitive gut
ectoderm
outside-skin, epidermis of skin, forms outer covering and nervous system, forms skeletal muscle, and lens of eyeball
mesoderm
middle skin, gives rise to muscle, internal organs such as blood and cartilage.
endoderm
inner skin, produces lining of digestive tract or gut, along with organs.
notochord
long, gelantinous, supportive rod down back of chordate embryo, below developing spinal cord, replaced by vertebrae in adult vertebrates, defining feature of chordates
neural plate
flat formation in gastroula that preceded the neural crest and tube.
neural tube
folded tube of ectoderm that forms along dorsal side of vertebrate embryo, gives rise to brain and spinal cord.
yolk platelets
discs full of yolk
dorsal lip
...
involution
find out
yolk plug
large food-laden endothermal cells surrounded by the blastopore of an amphibian gastrula
somite
a block of mesoderm on both sides of the developing spinal cord in a vertebrate embryo, gives rise to muscle tissue, vertebrae, ribs, limbs.
neural crest
group of embryonic cells that separate from the neural plate during neurolation and migrae to give several different lineages of adult cells.
determined cell
cells that cannot change, they have their function
animal pole
yolk poor region of an egg cell
positional information
info that cells use to determine what they are going to be in respect to their relative position
morphogen
substance governing the pattern of tissue development, positions of the various specialized cell types within a tissue
yolk sac
amniotic egg, membranebound sac that contains the yolk
amnion
membrane in amniotic egg that surrouds embryo and encloses it in a protective pool of fluid
chorion
amniotic egg, highly vascularized membrane across which gas exchange occurs.
allantois
amniotic egg, membrane-bound sac that holds waste materials.
blastocyst
thin walled hollow sphere produced by cleavage whose wall is the trophoblast with embryo proper being represented by a mass of cells @ one site
inner cell mass
group of cells found in the blastocyst, which give rise to embryo, it can make anything (tissues, organs) except trophoblast
trophoblast
provides nutrients to fetus, eventually forms placenta
embryonic disc
forms floor of amniotic cavity, derived of inner mass
gray crescent
gray cytoplasm in zygotes of some frog species opposite the point of sperm entry
totipotent
capable of dividing and developing to form complete, mature organism
cytoplasmic determinant
a molecule that exists in eggs and helps early development
fate map
description of what each cell in the embryo is destined to become.
pattern formation
events that determine spatial organization of embryo, including major body axes and orientation of limbs
retinoic acid
vitamin A, cause of cell differentiation, plays part in growth and development in embryo. higher concentration causes growth of extra limbs
extramembryonic membranes
membrane that connects mother to child
induction
interaction between a signaling cell and a nearby recipient cell that changes the activity or fate of the recipient cell.
organizer
region of amphibian embryo that can organize development of entire embryo cells that do recruiting, which come from specific fegion on the embryo's dorsal side.
primitive streak
where invagination eventually occurs
epithelial tissue
covers outside of the body, lines surfaces of organs, and forms glands. acts as a barrier and protective layer, typically form layers of closely packed cells. adjacent cells are joined by structures that hold them together (tight junctions and desmosomes).
simple epithelial cell
one layer of flat cells
columnar
rectangular cells, epithelial cells whose heights are at least twice their width. divided into simple, or unilayered, and stratified, or multi-layered
elastic fiver
bundles of proteins (elastin) found n connective tissue, produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries
axon
long projection of a neuron that can propagate an action potential
chondrocytes
only cells found in cartilage
leukocytes
immune system cells, including neurtrohils, macrophages, b cells and t cells, circulate in blolod or lymph and functin in defense against disease. (white blood cells
cardiac muscle
tissue of the vertebrate heart, consists of long branched fibers that are electrically connected that initiate their own contractions, not under voluntary control.
dendrite
short extension from a neurons cell body that recieves neurotransmitters from other neurons
connecective tissue
cells loosely arranged in a liquid, jellylike, or soldid extracellular matrix
stratified epithelia
layered epithelial cells
squamous
flat cells
reticular fibers
very thin, delicately woven strands of collagen, strands build highly ordered cellular network and provide support
organ
structure that seves a specialized function and consists of several tissues
osteocyte
most abundant cell found in bone
erythrocyte
Red blood cells
visceral muscle
smooth muscle
fibrous connective tissue
type of connective tissue which has relatively high tensile strength, due to a relatively high concentration of collagenous fibers
muscle tissue
tissue consisting of bundles of long, thin contractile cells (muscle fibers)
pseudostratified
1 layer, which looks like 2 because of the position the nuclei.
loose connective tissue
contains an array of fibrous proteins in a soft matrix and serves as a packing material between organs or padding under the skin.
fibroblast
fiber for connective tissue
tendon:
band of tough, fibrous connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone.
Haversian system:
Osteons (also called Haversian system in honor of Clopton Havers) are predominant structures found in some lamellar or compact bone.
platelet
small membrane-bound cell fragment in vertebrate blood, important in blood clotting
nervous tissue
tissue consisting of nerve cells (neurons) and various supporting cells, and functioning in rapid transmission of complex information
cuboidal
cube shaped cells, nucleus in the center of cell
collagenous fibers
made of collagen, bundles of fibrils that are coils of collagen molecules
adipos tissue
fat tissue
ligament
short band of tough fibrous connective tissue composed mainly of long, stringy collagen fibers
blood
type of liquid connective tissue consisting of red blood cells and leukocytes (white blood cells) suspended in fluid plasma.
skeletal muscle
(striated muscle): muscle tissue attached to bones of vertebrate skeleton, consists of long, unbranched muscle fibers w/characteristic striped (striated) appearance; voluntary control.
neuron
: nerve cell, specialized for transmission of nerve impulses, has dendrites, cell body, and long axon that forms synapses with other neurons.
monocot
plant that has single cotyledon upon germination
abscisic acid
ABA, plant hormone that inhibits cell elongation, stimulates leaf shedding and dormancy
phloem
plant vascular tissue conducts sugar, amino acids, chemical signals, contains sieve-tube members and companion cells
vascular tissue system
parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells specialized for support and long-distance transport of water and nutrients. (xylem, phloem)
tropisms
involuntary positional growth response to a stimulus
indeterminate growth
a pattern of growth in which organism continues to increase its overall body size throughout life
gravitropism
movement or growth of a plant in response to gravity, caused by asymmetrical distribution of auxin in roots
stem
vertical aboveground part of a plant usually bearing leaves, fruit, flowers
node
part of stem where leaves or leaf buds are attached
internode
section of a plant stem between 2 nodes (site where leaves attach)
axillary bud
lies at the junction of the stem and petiole of a plant
apical dominance
growth habit in which most of stem’s growth occurs at the apical meristem of the shoot
parenchyma cell
found in all tissue systems, living cells, capable of further division (totipotent), thin primary wall (found in leaves, centers of stems and roots, fruits. Involved in photosynthesis, starch storage, new growth)
collenchyma cell
living cell, thicker cell wall, elongated and packed into long ropelike fibers. Provide mechanical support in ground tissue system or elongating plants
sclerenchyma cell
strengthening and supporting function, dead cells w/thick lignified secondary cell walls, prevent them from stretching as plants grow.
dicot
plant w/2 cotyledons upon germination
xylem
plant vascular tissue conducts water and ions from root system to shoot system. Contains tracheids and vessel elements
cuticle
waxy layer that overlays epidermal cells of shoot system, minimizes water loss, forms barrier that protects plant from virus particles, reduces gas exchange, protects from damaging effects of intense sunlight and attacks from herbivores.
leaf abscissin
shedding of leaves from a plant
root hair
outgrowths produced by epidermal cells, greatly increase surface area of dermal tissue, furnish actual sites of water and nutrient absorption
indoleacetic acid (IAA)
hormone, molecule that produced bending response in decapitated shoots
acid-growth hypothesis
auxin’s effect on plant cell elongation occurs via installation of proton pumps that make cell wall more acidic, causing cell wall to expand.
vessel elements
elongated water-conducting plant cell founding xylem. Has gaps thru both primary and secondary cell walls, allowing unconstrained passage of water from one cell to the next.
gibberellins
plant hormone that stimulates growth
apical meristem
grp of undifferentiated cells at the tip of stem or root of a vascular plant, responsible for primary growth
simple tissue
: plant tissues that consist of a single cell type
dermal tissue system
: plants protective outer covering, facilitates water and ion uptake in roots and regulates gas exchange in leaves and stems
ethylene
: gaseous plant hormone that induces fruit to ripen, flowers to fade, and leaves to drop. (assoc. w/senescence (process of aging)
ground tissue system
plant tissue consisting of all cells beneath the outer protective layers of epidermis and cork, expect for vascular tissue.
phototropism
growth or movement in a particular direction in response to light
ground meristem:
middle layer of young plant embryo, gives rise to ground tissue
procambium
group of cells in core of embryo that becomes vascular tissue
cytokinins
: plant hormones that promote cell division, active cytokinins are synthesized in apical meristems of roots and transported in apical meristems of roots and transported into shoot system thru xylem
rootcap
protective cells that cover growing region of root
zone of cell division
contains apical meristem, where cells are actively dividing
complex tissue
tissues that contain several types of cells
stress hormone:
cortisol and norepinephrine are released at periods of high stress. The hormone regulating system is know as the endocrine system. Cortisol is believed to affect the metabolic system and norepinephrine is believed to play a role in ADHD
taproot system:
large vertical main root of a plant
auxin
indoleacetic acid, plant hormone that stimulates phototropism, involved in cell elongation and apical dominance, promotes cell division and leaf expansion, encourage ethylene production
meristem
group of undifferentiated plant cells that can produce cells that differentiate into specific adult tissues.
protoderm:
exterior layer of plant embryo, gives rise to epidermis
sieve plates
pore-containing structure at one end of a sieve-tube member in phloem
petiole
stalk of leaf
tracheids
elongated water-conducting plant cell w/gaps (pits) in secondary cell wall to allow water movement from once cell to next
perennial
plant that lives for more than 1 year.
Angiosperm
flowering plant, produces flowers, flowers contain both male and female parts, produces seeds within mature ovaries
Monocots
monocotyledons dicotyledons
1 cotyledon (inside seed) 2 cotyledons
vascular tissue scattered throughout stem vascular tissue in circular arrangement in stem
parallel veins in leaves (bundles of vascular tissue) branching veins in leaves
flower petals in multiples of 3 flower petals in multiples of 4/5
Dicots
dicotyledons
2 cotyledons
vascular tissue in circular arrangement in stem
branching veins in leaves
flower petals in multiples of 4/5
The importance of root system is to anchor the plant, take in water and nutrients from the soil, and serve as a storage site for starch and carbohydrates. The shoot system harvests light and CO2. The root system provides the shoot system with water and key elements in the form of ions.
Plants grow through primary growth and secondary growth. Primary growth increases the length of roots and shoots through the root and shoot system. The roots college nutrients and water, send it up to the shoot system. Secondary growth is increases the width of the system.

Parenchyma Cells Collenchyma Cells
Structure Living, thin primary cell wall Living, thick cell walls, elongated and packed in long ropelike fibers
Function Wound healing, asexual reproduction, primary site of photosynthesis, storage cells for starch deposits, make up phloem Support
Sclerenchyma cells:
Fibers- form long bundles, assoc w/vascular tissue and extremely elongated, manufacture paper, hemp or jute ropes or fabric
Sclereids- shorter branched cells found in seed coats and fruit, hardest, coat seeds and make up thick cells of nuts

Tracheids and vessel elements are important to plants because they make up the xylem. Both are sclerenchyma cells w/thick secondary cell walls containing lignin. Tracheids are extremely long and thin compared to vessel elements which are short and wide. Both are water-conducting cells found in vascular tissue. Tracheids have pits, interruptions in 2dary cell wall, which help water move both vertically and laterally, because resistance to flow is lowest at pits. Vessel elements have perforations, openings that lack both 1 & 2 cell walls, because they offer so little resistance to flow, they conduct water more efficiently than tracheids do.

Water-Conducting cells (Xylem Sieve-tube members (Phloem)
Structure Tracheids- long, thing
Vessel elements- short wide Long, thin cells
Function Conducts water and ions from root to shoot Conduct sucrose throughout body
b
Simple tissues
plant tissues that consist of single cell type
Complex tissues
plant tissues that contain several cell typesCuticles are needed for overlaying the epidermal layer of the shoot system.
used to minimize water loss by their wax, which is a lipid and hydrophobic. reduce amount of water that is lost thru evaporation from dermal tissue. protect the plant against pathogens by forming the first line of defense. Reduce gas exchange (open or closed stomata) Protection against sunlight and attacks by herbivores. Roots do not need protection because they are in the ground, therefore no intense sunlight, no herbivores. They have dead cells there that may be eaten
Dermal tissue system
protective outer covering, facilitates water and ion uptake in roots and regulates gas exchange in leaves and stems
: Vascular tissue system
xylem and phloem (form continuous vascular system throughout plant), conducts water and solutes between organs and mechanical support
5 classes of plant hormones:
auxin: bends stems of plants towards light (phototropism), inhibits lateral bud development, cell elongation, organogenisis
ethylene: ripens plants, promotes leaf abscission
gibberellin: promotes seed germination, cell division and elongation, breaks seed dormancy
ABA: inhibits seed germination, promotes seed dormancy and winter dormancy
Cytokinin: promotes cell division and differentiation, inhibits leaf abscission.
tropism
Light causes a phototropic response by wavelengths in the blue part of the electromagnetic spectrum being detected by photoreceptors (phototropins). It activates the hormones, which is produced in one part of the plant, and transported to target cells in another region of the individual, where it causes physiological responses.
Auxin
, a hormone, is produced in the shoot tips when phototropins in those cells absorb blue light. Auxin is redistributed to the shady side of the tip, then transported down the shoot, where it binds to the ABP1 receptors in plasma membrane of target cells. Cells elongate when activated ABP1 leads to the installation of additional proton pumps and the activation of the expansin proteins. In this way, auxin acts as the phototropic signal.
Small Intestine-
first site of the intestine, immediately after the stomach, site of the final stages of digestion and of most nutrient absorption.
Pancreas
gland attached to the small intestine that secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine and several digestion-related hormones (insulin and glucagons) into the bloodstream.
Maltose-
a dimer, found in inactive form of maltose
Maltase
enzyme that breaks down starch.
Disaccharid(-ases)-
on the brush border.
Trypsin-
protein-digesting enzyme produced by the pancreas, secreted into the intestine, and activated by enterokinase, activates several other protein-digesting enzymes.
Chymotrypsin
An enzyme that trypsin activates.
- carboxypeptidase’s-
An enzyme that trypsin activates.
Aminopeptidase
breaks up long amino acids into shorter ones.
Enterokinase-
An intestinal enzyme that converts trypsinogen (from the pancreas) to active trypsin, which then activates protein-digesting enzymes.
Chyme-
Acid in your stomach. Needs to be carefully controlled b/c it can destroy small intestine cells. It needs a buffer (HCO3-).
Microvill(I)-
Tiny protrusions from the surface of an epithelial cell that increase the surface area for absorption of substances.
Lactase
breaks down lactose.
Amylase-
saliva Breaks down starch so we won’t choke and to keep our teeth healthy
Rectum-
The last part of the digestive tract; a short tube that hold feces until they are expelled.
Pancreatic Amylase
- Continues the digestion of carbohydrates that began in the mouth . It is secreted from the pancreas into the small intestine.
Bolus
The ball of food that the tongue shapes so you can easily swallow it.
Esophagus
The muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
Lacteal-
- Lymphatic vessels in the center of villi of the small intestine. Receive chylomicrons containing fat absorbed from food and send them into the lymph system.
Bile-
A fluid produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder and secreted into the intestine, where it emulsifies fats during digestion.
Emulsification
When fat molecules are broken up
Jejunum
Second part of the small intestine.
Peristalsis
Rhythmic waves of muscular contractions of muscular contraction that push food along the digestive tract.
Lipase-
Any enzyme that can digest fats.
Salivary amylase-
an enzyme within the mouth that softens food and breaks down starch.
Feces
Waste.
Cholecystokinin
Intestinal hormone. Stimulates the release of digestive enzymes. From the pancreas.
- Stomach
A tough, muscular pouch in the digestive tract that breaks up food and delivers it to the intestine.
Large stomach (colon)-
Compact the wastes that remain and absorb enough water to form feces.
Zymogens
The inactive forms of enzymes. The enzymes are in inactive form in order to prevent the body from eating itself.
Mucus-
A slimy mixture of glycoproteins and water, secreted by organs for lubrication.
Goblet cells-
mucus
Cecum
A blind sac between the small intestine and the colon. Used in some species as a fermentation vat for digestion of cellulose.
Salivary glands
Release water and glycoproteins called mucins (when touch water, it forms mucus).
Liver-
An abdominal organ of vertebrates that performs many biochemical processes, including storage of glycogen, processing and converting of food and wastes, and production of bile.
Starch
A mixture of polysaccharides amylose and amyl pectin; used primarily for food storage in plants.
Cardiac sphincter-
Connects the esophagus to the stomach.
Pyloric sphincter
Connects the stomach to the doudenum (the small intestine).
Saliva-
a substance within the mouth that contains amylase that softens and breaks down starch.
Pepsin
The non-harmful form of pepsin(ogen). Digests proteins in the stomach.
Secretin
A peptide hormone produced by the small intestine in response to the arrival of food from the stomach. Stimulates secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas
Gastrin-
A hormone produced by the stomach in response to the arrival of food or to a signal via nerves from the brain. Stimulates other stomach cells to release hydrochloric acid.
Villi
projections of the lining of the digestive tract. Function to increase surface area for absorption.
Bile salts
Small lipids in bile that emulsify fats
Duodenum
The first part of the small intestine.
Nucleases
Digest the RNA and DNA in food.
Sucrase-
An enzyme that breaks down starch
Ileum-
The third part of the small intestine
Triglycerides-
.
the basic form of lipid when it is broken down for digestion.
Chylomicrons
- A ball of protein-coated lipids, used to transport the lipids through the bloodstream.
Vasopressin (ADH)-
Synthesized in the hypothalamus and released from the pituitary gland. Increases the permeability of the kidney’s collecting ducts to water. As a result, water is reabsorbed from the urine and saved. Instrumental in achieving homeostatis.
Oxytocin
A hormone that is released from the hypothalamus and induces labor and milk production in females.
Pituitary
Sits below the hypothalamus and has distinct anterior and posterior regions; releases the growth hormone, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, FSH and LH.
Gluconeogenesis
- - Synthesis of new glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as proteins and fatty acids. Occurs in the liver response to low insulin levels and high glucagons levels.
Aldosterone
Increases reabsorption of sodium by kidneys. Released from the adrenal glands
Growth hormone
A peptide hormone produced by the mammalian pituitary gland. Involved in lengthening the long bones during childhood and in muscle growth, tissue repair, and lactation in adults.
Prolactin-
Released from the pituitary gland. Stimulates the mammary gland growth and milk production in females.
Giantism
A disease where the growth hormone is overproduced. It results in a person being very tall.
Pancreas
A gland attached to the small intestine that secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine and several digestion-related hormones (notably, insulin and glucagons) into the bloodstream.
Insulin-
A peptide hormone produced by the pancreas in response to high levels of glucose (or amino acids) in blood. Enables cells to absorb glucose and coordinates synthesis of fats, proteins, and glycogen.
Glucagons-
A peptide hormone produced by the pancreas response to low blood glucose. Raises blood glucose by triggering breakdown of glycogen and stimulating gluconeogensis
Hypothalamus-
A part of the brain that regulates the body’s internal physiological state, such as the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system.
Releasing factor-
A hormone that stimulates the release of other hormones
Inhibiting factors
A hormone that inhibits the release of other hormones
Adrenal cortex
Completely different gland from adrenal medulla. Makes steroid hormones.
Adrenal medulla-
- Produces two different hormones 1) epinephrine (adrenaline), 2) nor epinephrine.
Glucocorticoids-
A class of steroid hormones released from the adrenal cortex that increase blood glucose and prepare the body for stress. Its primary role in humans is to ensure the continued availability of fuel molecules to support important body functions.
Hormone
A signaling molecule that circulates throughout the body in blood or other body fluids; can trigger pronounced responses in distant target cells at very low concentrations.
Epinephrine-
A catecholamine hormone from the adrenal medulla. Triggers rapid responses relating to the fight-or-flight response. Also known as adrenaline.
Calcitonin-
Help regulate the blood calcium level. It decreases the calcium in blood. It is released from the Thyroid gland.
PTH-
A peptide hormone that increases the calcium levels in blood.
TSH
peptide hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulates release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
ACTH
Stimulated from the pituitary gland. It stimulates adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids
Trophic hormone
hormones that control the release of other hormones
Thyroid gland-
Situated in the neck. Releases thyroxin and calcitonin
Thyroxin
Regulates the metabolic rate. Increases the metabolic rate and heart rate; promotes growth. It is released from the thyroid gland.
Parathyroid gland
- Embedded in the thyroid gland; releases PTH (increases the calcium in blood)
Adrenal gland
Two glands that sit atop the kidney and have an outer cortex and a central medulla. Release epinephrine, cortical and aldosterone.
telencephalon
- name for a large region within the brain that is attributed many functions.
Meninges
the system of membranes that envelop the central nervous system
White matter
one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system . It is composed of myelinated nerve cell processes, or axons, which connect various grey matter areas (the locations of nerve cell bodies) of the brain to each other and carry nerve impulses between neurons.
Grey matter
major component of the central nervous system, consisting of nerve cell bodies and short nerve cell extensions/processes ( axons and dendrites).
Telodendria
azon terminal branches
Synaptic knobs
- The end of a cell membrane where the neurotransmitters are transported to another neuron via exoctyosis
Neuropeptides-
any of the variety of peptides found in neural tissue; e.g. endorphins, enkephalins. Now, about 100 different peptides are known to be released by different populations of neurons in the mammalian brain.
Forebrain
the rostral-most portion of the brain.
Diencephalons
the region of the brain that includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus.
Brain-
the control center of the central nervous system
Spinal cord
part of the vertebrate central nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). It consists of nerve cells
Cerebral cortex
brain structure in vertebrates . In non-living, preserved brains, the outermost layers of the cerebrum has a grey color, hence the name "grey matter".
Astrocytes-
characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain.
Temporal summation
an effect generated by a single neuron as way of achieving action potential
Spatial summation-
a way of achieving action potential in a neuron which involves input from multiple cells. Spatial summation is the algebraic summation of potentials from different areas of input, usually on the dendrites.
Biogenic amines
biogenic amine is a biogenic substance with an amine group. Some prominent examples of biogenic amines include: Histamine, norephrphrine,
Hindbrain-
a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates.
Graded potentials
the electrical potential difference ( voltage) across a cell's plasma membrane
Thalamus
the main part of the diencephalon, a portion of the brain.
Electrical synapse
mechanical and electrically conductive link between two abutting neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic cells known as a gap junction
Mesencephalon
the middle of three vesicles that arise from the neural tube that forms the brain of developing animals. The mesencephalon caudally adjoins the pons and rostrally adjoins the diencephalon.
Prosencephalon
the rostral-most portion of the brain. The prosencephalon, the mesencephalon (midbrain), and rhombencephalon (hindbrain) are the three primary portions of the brain during early development of the central nervous system
- - Brainstem
the lower part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. . Major route for communication.
Glial cells
non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system
All-or-none event
Action potentials can only occur in all or none. They can't occur in partial events.
- Oligodendrocytes
variety of neuroglia. Their main function is the myelination of nerve cells exclusively in the central nervous system of the higher vertebrates, a function performed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
Blood-
brain barrier- membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system.
Chemical synapse
- specialized junctions through which cells of the nervous system signal to one another and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands
Endorphin
peptides produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates, and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being. In other words, they might work as "natural pain killers."
Atria-
thin walled chambers of the heart that pump blood in to the ventricles
Hydrostatic pressure
created by pressure on blood generated by the heart
Hemoglobin
oxygen-binding protein consisting of four polypeptide subunits, each containing a heme group
Chordae tendinae-
- cord-like tendons that connect papillary muscles to tricuspid valve and mitral valve in heart.
Intercalated disc-
physical connections between adjacent heart muscle cells. Contain gap junctions to allow electrical signals to pass between the cells
Bundle of his
- band of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that originate in the atrioventricular node and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum
Effects of smoking
- numbs cilia in trachea, so it cannot pick up shit you inhale, thus it collects in lung.
Trachea
- tube found in most mammals through which inhaled air travels and is carried to the lungs
Sinus node
specialized cardiac muscle fibers that generate cardiac impulses normally acts as a pacemaker(located in the right atrium)
Purkinje fibers
the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath endocardium fibers are specialized myocardial fibers that conduct an electrical stimulus that enables heart to contract in a coordinated fashion. work with SA node and AV node to control heart rate.
Arteriole
tiny arteries that deliver blood to the capillaries (has muscular walls)
Blood Pressure
force that the circulating blood exerts on the walls of the arteries (systolic and diastolic)
Respiratory Epithelium
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, encompasses goblet cells, all cells make contact with the basement membrane
Plasma
consists of serum and clotting factors, fluid portion of the blood that remains after the removal of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets
Diastole
portion of the heartbeat cycle during of which the atria or ventricles of the heart are relaxed
Systole
portion of the heartbeat cycle during which the heart muscles are contracting
Systolic Pressure
blood pressure in arteries during ventriclar systole(heart contractions)
Ventricles
thick walled chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the body or to the lungs
Bronchi
large tubes that lead from the trachea to each lung
Cartilage Rings
rings of cartilage that make up trachea
Capillary
smallest blood vessel where gasses and other molecules are exchanged between blood and tissues
Emphysema
lung disease caused by breakdown of alveoli and loss of elasticity of the lungs
Mitral Valve
valve that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
Bohr Effect
right ward shift of the oxygen – hemoglobin dissacociation curve that occurs with decreasing pH. Result in hemoglobin being more likely to release oxygen in the acidic environmentof exercising muscle.
Alveoli
tiny air filled sacs of a mammalian lung
Platelets
small membrane bound cell fragments in vertebrate that aid in the clotting process
Mucus
slimy mixture of glycoprotiens and water secreted by organs for lubrication
Vein
any blood vessel that carries blood from an atrium and pumps it to the body or to the lungs
aortic valve
lies between left ventricle and aorta. When pressure in left ventricle rises above pressure in the aorta, it opens, allowing blood to exit left ventricle into aorta
Atrioventricular node
location in the heart between the atria and the ventricles where electrical signals from the atria are slowed before spreading to the ventricles allowing them to fill with blood before contracting
Artery
any blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the capillaries, has thick muscular walls that withstand and control blood pressure
White Blood Cells
immune system cells that circulate in the blood or lymph and functions in the defense against disease
Tricuspid valve
heart valve named for its three cusps, divides the right atrium and right ventricle
Red Blood Cells
hemoglobin-containing cells that circulate in the blood and deliver oxygen from, the lungs to the tissues
Allosteric
allosteric regulation is the regulation of an enzyme or protein by binding an effector molecule at the protein's allosteric site
Bronchioles
small lungs that carry air from the bronchi to the alveoli.
Globulins
serum proteins
Vagus Nerve
only nerve that starts in brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, thru jugular foramen, down below head, to abdomen, single most important nerve in body
Diastolic Pressure
blood pressure in arteries during the relaxation of the hearts left ventricle
Albumin
class of large proteins found in plants and animals (mainly in the albumen of eggs and in blood plasma
Transduction
movement of ions across membrane
Amplification
G proteins (molecular). Physical- example hearing. Bones move to enhance hearing by positioning so the sound waves will hit the water better.
Transmission
action potential going to the central nervous system.
Opsin
one of several proteins involved in animal vision. An opsin joins with retinal to form the light-detecting pigment rhodopsin in rod cells.
Tropomyosin
a muscle protein that blocks the myosin-binding sites on actin filaments, preventing muscle contraction. Can be moved out of the way by troponin when intracellular calcium is high.
Mechanoreceptors
pressure, stretch, touch, motion, sound, *propio (self)
Pacinian corpuscles
the receptors that are deep in the dermis. Can be 2 cm long, real deep pressure and distortion.
Meissners corpuscles
very light touch. Ex: finger tips.
Merkel’s discs
responsible for very light touch
Tympanic membrane
the eardrum; a membrane separating the middle ear from the outer ear in terrestrial vertebrates, or similar structures in insects.
Thermoreceptor
thought to be “naked”. Hot-linked to pain- 42 linked to capsacin-heat. Capsacin blocks pain over time. Cold-below 25 degrees linked to menthol, responding with the cold receptor.
Stapes
a stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear of vertebrates. Receives vibrations from the tympanic membrane and passes them to the cochlea.
Oval window
a membrane separating the fluid-filled cochlea from the air-filled middle ear. The stapes, a middle ear bone, transmits sound vibrations to the cochlea by vibrating on the oval window.
Sclera
(usually) the white outer coating of the eye made of tough fibrin connective tissue which gives the eye its shape and helps to protect the delicate inner parts.
Cornea
the transparent sheet of connective tissue at the very front of the eye in vertebrates and some other animals. Protects the eye and helps focus light.
Pupil
the hole in the center of the iris through which light enters a vertebrate or cephalopod eye.
Rhodopsin
a combination of two molecules (retinal and one of various opsins) instrumental in detection of light by rods and cones of vertebrate eyes.
Myofibrils
Found within muscle cells, they are the bundles of filaments that run from one end of the cell to the other and are attached to the cell surface membrane at each end.
Thin filaments
strands of actin found in the middle of a muscle sarcomere. Bind to thin filaments (actin) and cause muscle contraction.
Aqueous humor
the clear, watery fluid in the eye that fills the space between the back surface of the cornea and the front surface of the vitreous humor.
Sarcomere
a single contractile unit of a skeletal muscle cell.
Rod cells
a type of photoreceptor cell with a rod-shaped outer portion. Found in vertebrate retinas. Particularly sensitive to dim light, but not used to distinguish colors.
Cone cells
(1) a photoreceptor cell with a coneshaped outer portion that is particularly sensitive to bright light of a certain color. Found in eyes of vertebrates and some other animals.
Fovea
the small region of the vertebrate retina in which the photoreceptors are very tightly packed, producing the most acute vision.
Sensory adaptation
a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus.
Bipolar cells
cells in the vertebrate retina that receive information from one or more photoreceptors and pass it to the other bipolar cells and ganglion cells.
Ganglion cells-
neurons in the vertebrate retina that collect visual information from one or several bipolar cells.
Horizontal cells
the laterally interconnecting neurons in the outer plexiform layer of the retina
Amacrine cells
interneurons in the retina which operate at the Inner Plexiform Layer (IPL), the second synaptic retinal layer where bipolar cells and ganglion cells synapse
Olfactory receptor
a type of G protein-coupled receptor in olfactory receptor neurons. In vertebrates, the olfactory receptors are located in the olfactory epithelium. In insects, olfactory receptors are located on the antennae. Sperm cells also express odor receptors, which are thought to be in volved in chemotaxis to find the egg cell.
Incus
is the anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear. It connects the malleus to the stapes. The incus only exists in mammals, and is derived from a reptilian upper jaw bone, the quadrate bone.
Pain receptor
Nociceptor. A sensory cell or organ specialized to detect tissue damage, usually producing the sensation of pain.
Cochlea
a coiled, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear of mammals, birds, and crocodilians. Contains nerve cells that detect sounds of different pitches.
Endolymph
the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. The main cation of this unique extracellular fluid is potassium. Disruption of the endolymph due to jerky movements (like driving over bumps while riding in a car) can cause motion sickness.
Utricle
larger than the saccule, is of an oblong form, compressed transversely, and occupies the upper and back part of the bestibule, lying in contact with the recessus ellipticus and the part below it. The portion which is lodged in the recess forms a sort of pouch or cul-de-sac, the floor and anterior wall of which are thichened, and form the macula acustica utriculi, which receives the utricular filaments of the acoustic nerve. The cavity of the utricle communicates behind with the semicircular ducts by five orifices. From its anterior wall is given off the ductus utriculosaccularis, which opens into the ductus endolymphaticus.
Semicircular canals
three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear that are the equivalent of three gyoscopes located in three planes perpendicular. Each canal is filled with a fluid called endolymph and contains a motion sensor with little hairs (cilia) whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. The semicircular canals are a component of the Labyrinth.
- Myofilaments
The filaments of myofibrils constructed from proteins, myofilaments consist of 2 types, thick and thin. Thin filaments consist primarily of the protein actin; thick filaments consist primarily of the protein myosin. The protein complex composed of actin and myosin is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin." In striated muscle, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, the actin and myosin filaments each have a specific and constant length on the order of a few micrometers, far less than the length of the elongated muscle cell (a few millimeters in the case of human skeletal muscle cells). The filaments are organized into repeated subunits along the length of the myofibril.
Tetanus
generates smooth muscle contraction. The maximum state of tension that can be achieved in a muscle.
Thick filaments-
strands of myosin found in the middle of a muscle sarcomere. Bind to thin filaments (actin) and cause muscle contraction.
Origin
muscle connection where the least amount of motion occurs.
Myosin
a eukaryotic protein that can be polymerized to form thick filaments that are used in muscle contraction and intracellular movement.
Troponin complex
a muscle protein that can trigger muscle contraction by moving tropomyosin off the myosin-binding sites on actin filaments. Activated by high intracellular calcium.
Hair cell
a pressure-detecting sensory cell that has tiny “hairs” (stereocilia) jutting from its surface
Lens
a transparent, crystalline structure that focuses incoming light onto a retina or other light-sensing apparatus of an eye
Pinna
visible part of the ear that resides outside the head.
Auditory canal
The ear canal or 'external auditory meatus' is a tube running from the outer ear to the middle ear. The ear canal extends from the pinna to the eardrum and is about 26 mm in length and 7 mm in diameter.
Middle ear
the air-filled middle portion of the mammal ear, connecting to the thraot via the Eustachian tube. Transmits and amplifies sound from the tympanic drum
Cardiac muscle
the muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart. Consists of long branched fibers that are electrically connected and that initiate their own contractions; not under voluntary control
Intercalated discs
the physical conections between adjacent heart muscle cells. Contain gap junctions to allow electrical signals to pass between the cells
Inner ear
the innermost portion of the mammalian ear, consisting of a fluid-filled system of tubes that includes the cochlea (which receives sound vibrations from the middle ear) and the semicircular canals (which function in balance)
Iris
a ring of pigmented muscle just inside the vertebrate eye that contracts or expands to control the amount of light entering the eye.
Retina
a thin layer of light-sensitive cells (rods or cones) and neurons at the back of a camera-type eye, such as that of cephalopods or vertebrates.
Actin-
a globular protein that can be polymerized to form actin filaments, which are I nvolved in cell movement
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
sheets of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in a muscle cell. Contains high concentrations of calcium, whoch can be released into the cytoplasm to trigger contraction.
Sliding filament model
the hypothesis that the contraction of muscle cells is caused by filaments of actin and myosin sliding past each other
Chemoreceptor
sensory cell or organ specialized for detection of specific molecules of classes of molecules.
Electromagnetic receptor
sensory cell or organ specialized to detect electric fields.
Myoglobin-
an oxygen-binding muscle protein consisting of a single globin and one heme group.
Smooth muscles
the unstriated muscle tissue that lines the intestine, blood vessels, and some other organs. Consists of tapered, unbranched cells that can sustain long contractions. Not voluntarily controlled.
Nociceptor
a sensory cell or organ specialized to detect tissue damage, sually producing the sensation of pain