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25 Cards in this Set

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What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
A range of waves of different wavelengths. Includes gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infra-red and microwaves.
Identify the limited range of wavelengths detected by humans
380 - 750nm
What is refraction?
The bending of light as it passes between two mediums of differing density
Where does refraction occur in the eye?
In the cornea, aqueous and vitreous humour and the lens.
What is accommodation?
When the shape of the lens is changed to focus.
What is Myopia?
Myopia is short-sightedness. The image is focused in front of the lens. Close objects can be seen clearly while distant objects are blurred.
What is Hyperopia?
Hyperopia is long sightedness. The image is focused behind the retina. Distant objects can be seen clearly while close objects are blurry.
What technologies are available to correct Myopia and Hyperopia?
Glasses and contact lenses can be used. Refractive surgery can be done, where a laser is used to reshape the cornea so that the light is refracted at the correct angle.
What is colour blindness and what is the cause of this condition?
colour blindness is when one or more of the colour detecting cones are damged or missing. It is a sex linked disease carried on the x chromosome and more common in boys that girls.
Why is sound a useful and versatile form of communication?
- sound travels well in air and water
- the sender doesn't have to be visable to the reciever
-it is useful in the dark
-can go around objects
-can travel over long distances
-a wide variety of sounds can be produced
What is a stimulus?
a change in the environment detected by a receptor
What are receptors?
Part of the nervous system that detect a stimulus
What are effectors?
Muscles or glands that are capable of producing responses to stimuli
What is the conjunctiva and what is its function?
A mucous membrane that covers the eye. It protects the eye and keeps it moist.
identify the structure and function of the Cornea
It is the transparent front part of the eye that refracts light entering the eyeball.
What is the structure and function on the Sclera?
It is the tough white outer coating of the eye. Protects the eye.
What is the iris?
It is the pigmented tissue that contains two sets of muscles to control the size of the pupil and the amount of light entering the eye
What does the lens do?
The lens is a transparent protien disk that focuses light onto the retina.
What is the ciliary body?
It contains the ciliary muscles and suspensory ligaments that hold the lens in position. It connects the choriod with the lens. Alters the shape of the lens.
What is the choroid?
A dark pigmented layer inside the sclera containing many blood vessels. Absorbs and prevents light from scattering.
What is the structure and function of the Retina?
It is the inner layer of the eye, contains photoreceptor cells FOVEA and BLIND SPOT. changes light into nerve impulses.
What is the optic nerve?
the nerve which connects the eye to the brain. It carries information from the eye to the brain.
List the parts of the ear involved in hearing
Pinna, Tympanic Membrane, Ear ossicles, Oval window, Round Window, Cochlea, Organ of Corti, Auditory nerve.
Name two types of photoreceptor cells found in the human eye
Rods and Cones
What are ossicles?
small bones in the middle ear.