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87 Cards in this Set

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Science
A process of learning about nature by observation and experiment, as well as a collection of knowledge and insights about nature
Life
reproduce,learn/grow,and release complex chemical reactions
Scientific Method
The process by which scientist investigate the natural world. This method invloves the testing of hypotheses through observation and experiment, as aided by the tools of statistics.
Theory
a general set of principles, suppoered by evidence, that explains some aspect of nature
Hypothesis
a tentative, testable explanation of an observed phenomenon
life science
a set of disciplines that focus on various aspects of the living world. The life science include biology and related disciplines such as medicine and forestry
physical sciences
the natural sciences not concerned with life
evolution
any genetically bases phenotypic change in population of organisms over successive generations. Evolution can also be thought of as the process by which species of living things can undergo modification over successive generations,with such modifications sometimes resulting in the formation of new species
mass
a measure of the resistance of an object to be moved, taking into account the object's density and volume. For most biological purposes, mass is equivalent to weight.
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
atomic weight
the combined weight of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus.
orbital (shell)
fills up with electrons, 2 in the first shell, 8 in all shells following
valence electrons
electrons that do not fill a shell up completly are refered to as valence electrons
Monomers
a small molecule that can be combined with other similar or idential molecules to make a larger polymer
polymer
a large molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits, called monomers
nucleus
the membrane-lined compartment that encloses the primary comlement of DNA in eukaryotic cells
electrons
a basic constituent of an atom that has negative electrical charge. electrons are distributed in an atom at a distance from the nucleus. electrons interact to form chemical bonds between atoms
protons
a basic constituent of an atom, found in the nucleus of the atom and having postive electrical charge. Elements are defined by the number of protons in their nucleus
neutrons
a basic constituent of an atom, possessing no electrical charge found in the atom's nucleus. Isotopes are defined by the number of neutrons in an atom
chemical bonding
general term for a bond created when electrons of two atoms ineract and rearrange into a new form that allows the atoms to become attached to each other. Ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds are all chemical bonds.
Element
a substance that cannot be reduced to any simpler set of components through chemical processes. An element is defined by the number of protons in its necleus
atom
the fundamental unit of matter; once thought to be the smallest particle in nature,but now known to be made up of many smaller units,including electrons,protons,and neutrons
molecule
a structure with a defined nu;mber of atoms in particular spatial arrangement. The atoms and their arragnement determine howthe molecule interacts with other molecules
covalent bond
a type of chemical bond in which two atoms are linked through a sharing of electrons
hydrogen bond
a chemical bond that links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with a second, relatively electronegative atom.
ionic bonding
a linkage in which tow or more ions are bonded to each other by virtue of their opposite charge.
nonpolar covalent bond
a type of cavalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between atoms
polar covalent bond
a type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally between atoms, so that one end of the molecule has a slight negative charge and the other end has a slight postive charge.
electronegativity
the measure of the strength of attraction an atom has for electrons. An atom with higher electronegativity will tend to pull electrons away from atoms with lower electronegativity.
molecular formula
a notation specifying the elements in a molecule, with the number of each shown as a subscript. This notation reveals the constituent elements of a molecule,but not the spatial arrangement of those elements.
Double bonds
type of covalent bond formed when two paris of electrons are shared between atoms
Triple bonds
a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
ion
an atom that has postive or negative charge because it has fewer or more electrons that protons. Ions will be attracted to other ions with the opposite charge, thus forming ionic compounds.
hydrocarbon
a compuond made of hydrogen and carbon. they are nonpolar and therefore are not easily dissolved in water.
hydrophilic
(water loving) It will interact with water
hydrophobic
(water hating) It will not interact with water
functional group
a group of atoms that confers a speical property on a carbon-based molecule. They are usually transferred as a unti among carbon-based molecules and often confer an electrical charge or polarity on the molecules they are a part of.
organic chemistry
a branch of chemisty concerned with compounds that have carbon as their cental element.
Carbohydrates
always contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Usually contain twice as many hydrogens atoms as oxygen atoms.The building blocks or monomers are monosaccharides, such as glucose, which combine to create the polymers of carbohydrates,the polysaccharides,such as starch and celluose
Lipids
a class of biological molecules whose defing characteristic is their relative insolubilty in water. Ex. triglycerides, cholestrol,steroids,and phosphospholipids
Element
a substance that cannot be reduced to any simpler set of components through chemical processes. An element is defined by the number of protons in its necleus
atom
the fundamental unit of matter; once thought to be the smallest particle in nature,but now known to be made up of many smaller units,including electrons,protons,and neutrons
molecule
a structure with a defined nu;mber of atoms in particular spatial arrangement. The atoms and their arragnement determine howthe molecule interacts with other molecules
covalent bond
a type of chemical bond in which two atoms are linked through a sharing of electrons
hydrogen bond
a chemical bond that links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with a second, relatively electronegative atom.
Protein
a large polymer of amino acids, composed of one or more polypepetide chains. They come in many forms, including enzymes,structral proteins, and hormones.
Starch
a complex carbohdrate that seves as the major form of carbohydrate storage in plants. They are found in potatoes,rice, carrots,and corn.
Glycogen
A complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form in which carbohdrates are stored in animals.
Cellulose
A complex carbohydrate that is the largest single component of plant cell walls. It is dense and rigid and provides structure for much of the natural world.
Monosaccharide
Building block or monomer of carbohydrates. They combine to form complex carbs or polysaccharides. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide
Polysaccharides
The polymers of carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharides.Examples are starch and cellulose
Glycerol
A particular kind of alcohol, frequently found in the "head" of glyceride.
Triglycerides
A lipid molecule form from three fatty-acids bonded to glycerol.
Cell
The functional unit of life .A highly organized, generally microscopic structure whose component parts always include an outer membrane,genetic material in the form of DNA, and a host of accessory molecules. All living things either are single cells or are composed of collections of cells.
Organelle
A higly organized out specific cellular functions. Almost all organells are bound by membranes.(minus ribosomes)Organelles in eukaryotic cells include the cell nucleus, mitochondria,lysomes, chloroplats,and ribosomes.
Protein
a large polymer of amino acids, composed of one or more polypepetide chains. They come in many forms, including enzymes,structral proteins, and hormones.
Starch
a complex carbohdrate that seves as the major form of carbohydrate storage in plants. They are found in potatoes,rice, carrots,and corn.
Glycogen
A complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form in which carbohdrates are stored in animals.
Cellulose
A complex carbohydrate that is the largest single component of plant cell walls. It is dense and rigid and provides structure for much of the natural world.
Monosaccharide
Building block or monomer of carbohydrates. They combine to form complex carbs or polysaccharides. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide
Eukaryotic cell
a cell whose primary complement of DNA is contained within a membrane-lined nucleus. They have several other organelles in addition to the nucleus. ALl organisms except bacteria and archaea are eukaryotic. All organisms are either single cell eukaryotic cells or are composed of cells that have a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell whose DNA is not located in the membrane-bound organelle known as a nucleus. They are microscopiv forms of life and are either bacteria or archaea.
Cytoplasm
The region of a cell inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus. Usually, this region is filled with the jelly-like cytosol containing the cell's extra nuclear organelles
cytosol
The protein-rich, jelly-like fluid in which a cell's organelles that are outside the nucleus are immersed.
Mitochondria
organelles that are the primary sites of energy conversion within eukaryotic cells.
Golgi complex
a network of membranes,found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, tghat processes and distributes proteins that come to it from the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleus
the central core of an atom, contained its protons and neutrons. Nearly all the mass of the atom resides in its nucleus
plasma membrane
a membrane forming the outer boundary of many cells, composed of phospohlipid bilayer interspersed with proteins and cholesterol molecules and coated, on its exterior face, with short carbohydrate chains associated with proteins and lipids.
Ribosome
an organelle, located in the cells cytoplasm, that is the site of protein synthesis. The translation phase of protein synthesis takes place with ribosomes.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)
A network of membranes, found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic ccells, that aids in the processing of proteins
Eukaryotic cell
a cell whose primary complement of DNA is contained within a membrane-lined nucleus. They have several other organelles in addition to the nucleus. ALl organisms except bacteria and archaea are eukaryotic. All organisms are either single cell eukaryotic cells or are composed of cells that have a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cell
A cell whose DNA is not located in the membrane-bound organelle known as a nucleus. They are microscopiv forms of life and are either bacteria or archaea.
Cytoplasm
The region of a cell inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus. Usually, this region is filled with the jelly-like cytosol containing the cell's extra nuclear organelles
cytosol
The protein-rich, jelly-like fluid in which a cell's organelles that are outside the nucleus are immersed.
Mitochondria
organelles that are the primary sites of energy conversion within eukaryotic cells.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(Smooth ER)
a network of membrans within the cell that is the site of the synthesis of various lipids, and site at which potentially harmful substances are detoxified
Lysomes
an organelle foun in animal cells that difests worn-out cellular materials and foreign materials that enter the cell
Flagella
the relatively long, tail-like extensions of some cells,composed of microtubules, that function in cell movement. Often cells will have but a single flagellum, as with mammalian sperm cells
Cytoskelteon
a network of protein filaments that functions in cell structure, cell movement,and the transport of materials within the cell. Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and mcirotubules are all parts of the cytokeleton.
cilia
hair-like extensions of a cell,composed of microtubles. May cilia occer on the srface of a given cell, and move rapidly back and forth to propel the cell or to move material around the cell
chloroplast
the organelle within plant and algae cells that is the site of photosynthesis.
cell wall
a relatively thick layer of material that forms the periphery of plant, bacterial, and fungal cells.
fluid-mosaic model
a conceptualization of the cell's outer or plasma membrane as a fluid,phospholipid bilayer that has moving laterally within it a mosaic of proteins. This is the consensus contemporty view of the makeup of the plasma membrane.
integral proteins
a protein of the plasma membrane that is attached to the membrane's hydrophobic interior
peripheral proteins
a protein of the plasma membrane that lies on the inside or outside of the membrane but is not attached to the membrane's hydrophobic interior
phospholipid bilayer
one of the chief components of the plasma membrane, composed of two layers of phospoholipids, arragned with their fatty acid chains pointing toward each other
receptor proteins
a protein with a binding site, located at the surface of the plasma membrane of a cell. the binding of a receptor protein with a specific molecule causes a change in the cell's activities