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25 Cards in this Set

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Heredity
Transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring
Genetics
Study of Heredity
Monohybrid cross
Cross involving one pair of contrasting traits
True-Breeding
Displaying only form of a particular trait in offspring
P generation
The first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
F1 Generation
The first offspring from a cross
F2 Generation
The offspring from crosses among the F1 generation
Allele
An alternative form of a gene
dominant
Genetic trait that is always expressed
recessive
Genetic trait only expressed when homozygous
Homozygous
refers to an individual with two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
Refers to an individual with two different alleles for a trait
Genotype
The genetic makeup of an organism as indicated by its set of alleles
Phenotype
Observable characteristics of an organism
Law of Segregation
The first law of heredity stating that pairs of alleles for a trait separate when gametes are formed
Law of independent assortment
Second law of heredity stating that pairs of genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Punnett Square
Diagram used by biologists to predict the probable outcome of a genetic cross
Test cross
A genetic cross of an individual whose phenotype is dominant but whose phenotype is unknown
Probablility
The likelihood that a specific event will occur
Pedigree
A family history that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations
Sex-linked trait
A trait that is determined by a gene found on the X chromosome
Polygenic trait
Characteristic of an organism that is influenced by many genes
incomplete dominance
Condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of its two parents
Codominance
Condition in which both alleles for a gene are expressed when present
Multiple alleles
The existence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait