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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chromosome map
a diagram of allele positions on a chromosome.
a mutation in which a segment of DNA breaks off of a chromosome.
frame-shift mutation
a mutation that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame.
germ-cell mutation
a change in the DNA of a sex cell.
a mutation that occurs when a chromosome piece breaks off and reattches in the reverse orientation.
lethal mutation
mutations that cause death, often before birth.
linckage group
the group of genes, located on the same chromosome, that are usually inheerited together.
map unit
a unit in chromosome mapping equal to 1 percent occurrence of crossing-over.
the failure of homologous chromosomes to seperate during meiosis or the failure of sister chromatids to seperate during mitosis.
point mutation
the change of a single nitrogen-containing base within a codon.
sex linkage
the presencce of a gene on a sex chromosome.
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder caused by a point mutation that sustitutes adenine for thymine in a single DNA codon.
somatic mutation
a mutation that occurs in a body cell.
a point mutation in which one nucleotide in a codon is replaced with a different nucleotide.
a mutation in which a broken piece of chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome; movement of organic molecules in plant tissues.
X-linked gene
a gene found on the X chromosome.
Y-linked gene
a gene found on the Y chromosome.
a procedure used in fetal diagnosis in which fetal cells are removed from the amniotic fluid.
individuals who have one copy of a recessive autosomal allele; they usually do not express the recessive allele, but they can pass it along to their offspring.
chronic villi sampling
a procedure involving the analysis of the chronic villi to diagnosis fetal genotypes.
a recessive X-linked disorder in which an individual cannot distinguish between certain colors.
Down syndrome
a disorder caused by an extra twenty-first chromosome and characterized by a number of physical and mental abnormalities.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
a form of muscular dystrophy that weakens and progressively destroys muscle tissue.
genetic counseling
the process of informing a couple about their gentic makeup, which has the potential to affect their offspring.
genetic disorder
a disease that has a genetic basis.
genetic marker
a short section of DNA that indicates the presence of an allele that codes for a trait.
genetic screening
an examination of a person's genetic makeup.
a trait in which the blood lacks a protein that is essential for clotting.
Huntington's disease (HD)
a human genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele resulting in involuntary movements, mental deterioration, and eventual death.
a condition in a diploid cell in which one pair is missing as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis.
a diagram of the gentic history of an individual; can show how a trait is inherited over several generations.
phenylketonuria (PKU)
a genetic disorder in which the body cannot metabolize phentlalanine.
polygenic trait
a trait controlled by multiple genes.
sex-influenced trait
a trait that is influenced by the presence of male or female sex hormones.
single-allele trait
trait controlled by a single allele.
a chromosomal anomaly in which an individual has an extra chromosome in any of the chromosome pairs.
a human cogenital disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 due to the failure of the sister chromatids to seperate during meiosis.