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72 Cards in this Set

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Gatekeepers
made up of lipids,proteins, carbohydrates.(Cell membrane)it creates a barrier between the inside and the outside.
Phospholipid Bilayer
two rows of lipids that creat a fluid mosaic model, includes cholesterol,and proteins, and give cell it's shape.
Cholesterol
0 to 25% in the membranes and the more the siffer the membrane.
Proteins
in all membranes, 1 for every 25 lipids(avg.) in bedded or attached to surface of bilayer, can move w/in or be anchored to a spot.
Anchored proteins
Move materials in and out of cell. Send and recieve signals, cell recognition
Transport Proteins
Flows like a river,back and forth
Receptor Protiens
Deliver chemical messages to cell,DOES NOT enter the cell, Hormones/nuttrient binding>chain reaction. Resulting in a response.
Recognition Proteins
Recognizes what is suppose to be there.
Carbohydrates
only on the outside of cell membranes surface, cell to cell recognition and cell adhesion
Membrane Transport
Passive Transport, & Active Transport
Passive Transport
No energy required, goes from higher concentration to lower concentration. simple diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Osmosis
The Concentrated Gradient
When something goes from Highr consentration to lower consentration.
Simple Diffusion
Very small molecules (oxygen and water)
Facilitated Diffusion
Ion channels(ions) Aquaporins(water)Carrier Proteins(sugars,amino acids) Glucous transport most used.
Osmosis
Movement of water molecules across the membrane from the higher concentrate to lower. always trying to dilute. (hydopotonic side to hyertonic side)
Isotonic
Always equal
Hypertonic
More solids
Hypotonic
less solids
Crenates
Cells shrink
Active Transport
Requires energy(ATP) goes against concentration grade, (trasports though proteins,Endocytosis,Exocytosis)
Endocytosis
Phagocytosis,Pinocytosis
Phagocytosis
Cellular eating
Pinocytosis
Cellular drinking(visicles=membrane bound bubbles)
Exocytosis
waste
Cell
small, all have plasma membranes( need a larger surface area: volume ratio, less distance to get to the outside)
3 domains
Bacteria,Archaea(Prokarya)
Eurkarya(animals)
Prokaryotes
Inhabits all areas of the planet.
Structurea of all Prokaryotes
Plasma membrane
Neucleoid regin
Cytoplasm
Nucleoid regin
Has the cells DNA
Cytoplasm
"juice",has nucleiod, liquid, ribosomes
Structure of SOME prokaryotes
cell wall
Capsule
Flagellum
Cell Wall of prokaryotes
keeps cells shape and ridigity.
Capsule of of prokaryotes
1)Slime layer on outside (polysacchorides=carbs)
2)Protects immune system attacks
3)Prevents it from losing water
4)traps other cells for food
Flagellum of prokaryotes
Along single appendage
Acts like a propeller
Eurkaryotes
typically multicellular
Eurkaryotes structure
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Ribosomes
Cytoskeleton
Organelles
Cytoskeleton
the cells framework
Organelles
enclosed by another membrane. are structures that have specific roles.[nucleus,mitochondria,rough endoplasmic reteculum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum,golgi apperatice,lysome,(vacules and chlooplasts in plants only)]
Nucleus
usually the largest organelle in the cell(nuclear enevelope, nuclear pores, nucleous)
Nuclear envelope
2 membrane
Nuclear pores
door way to the nucleus
Nucleous
has no membrane,(peanut M&M), DNA, starts the assembly of ribosomes
Nucleus Functions
Site of DNA Replication, control center of cell,
Ribosomes
Tiny complexes RNA & proteins, free in the cytoplasm, attach to the surface of RER, inside the mitochondria, in the plants cloroplasts.
Ribosomes function
Protein synthesis(make protein)
Endomembrane System
Endoplasmic reticulum(ER)
Rough Endoplasmic reticulum(RER)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum(SER)
Golgi Apparatus/complex
Rough Enoplasmic Reticulum(RER)[structure]
Lots of flat folds, ribosomes,it continues w/ outer nuclear envelope
Rough Enoplasmic Reticulum(RER)[function]
stores and transports proteins to othe locations inside vesicles. holds the ribosomes
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)[structure]
lots of tubular folds, no ribosomes,
Smooth Endoplasmic Rticulum(SER)[function]
manufactures molecules like phospholipids/cholesterole
chemical modification of proteins from the RER or small molecules
Golgi Apparatus/Complex[structure]
gets membrane from ER vesicles, stacks of saucers and veribrate
Vesicles
little taxis they carry things in and out of golgi.
Golgi Apparatus/Complex[ function]
Chemical modification. post office of the cell( concentrates packages, sorts proteins
Lysosomes[structure]
digestive enzymes in a vesicle coming from golgi, not found in plant cells
Lysosomes[function]
little stomachs that break down food coming into the cell. breaks down its own cell(autophapy)
Mitochondria[structure]
2 membranes [outer membrane= smooth and protects
inner membrane= cristle and matrix]
Cristle
numerous folds
Matrix
regin enclosed, liquid,ribosomes, enzymes,DNA
Mitochodria[function]
powerhouse of the cell. Cell needs more energy have more mitochondria.
Chloroplast[structure]
2 membranes[outer=smooth and protects
Inner=stroma, Grana, Thylokoids]
Stroma
Fluid ( ribosomes, DNA )
Grana(pl)
stacks of thylokoids
Thylokoids
circular compartment that store chlorophyll
Chloroplast[function]
Photosynthisis
Vacuole[structure](plants only)
single membrane, filled w/ aqueous solutions,
Vacuole[function](plants only)
waterbalance in cell, stores toxic by products, aids in structure and support, some contain plant pigment.
Cytoskeleton [structure]
3 type of filamen (microfilament,intermediant filament,and microtubles)
Cytoskeleton [function]
maintains cell shape and support,aids in cell movement, acts and tracks for organelle movement.
Flagellum[structure](in plants and animals)
long singlely or paired, snake like movement
Flagallum[function] ( in plants and animals)
move the cell
Cilia[structure]
short more numerous, beat stiffly in one direction then comes back around again.
Cilia[function]
move fluids past surface, found in oviducts, repritory tracts of animals.