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275 Cards in this Set

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A plasma-membrane lipid possessing a sugar chain that functions in cell recognition
Glycolipid
The most abundant molecule found within the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane
Phospholipid
A plasma-membrane lipid that improves the rigidity of the plasma membrane and increases the membrane's impermeability to water
Cholesterol
The component of the plasma membrane that can act as a doorway for charged particles
Protein
The method by which large particles and macromolecules enter the cell by an infolding of the plasma membrane
Endocytosis
The movement of water across a selectively permeable plasma membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Osmosis
The mechanism by which substances are moved from the cell cytoplasm to the outside of the cell by the fusion of a vesicle with plasma membrane
Exocytosis
The tendency of molecules to move along their concentration gradient from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Diffusion
These methods carry molecules, pump molecules, or form channels through which specific molecules pass across the plasma membrane
Transport mechanisms
Endocytosis of large items, such as bacteria or cellular debris
Phagocytosis
Endocytosis of a tiny quantity of extracellular fluid containing solute molecules
Pinocytosis
Endocytosis that utilizes selective plasma membrane receptor proteins
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
By which method does each of the following substances move into the cell?

Hormones such as insulin, low-density lipoproteins
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
By which method does each of the following substances move into the cell?

Water movement across membrane
Osmosis
By which method does each of the following substances move into the cell?

Movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other small uncharged molecules across membrane
Diffusion
By which method does each of the following substances move into the cell?

Movement of large particles, bacteria, or cellular debris by endocytotic vesicle
Phagocytosis
By which method does each of the following substances move into the cell?

Molecules moving against the concentration gradient
Active transport mechanisms
Match the organelles with their characteristics.

Mitochondrion
Cristae; matrix
Match the organelles with their characteristics.

Ribosome
Composed of two subunits; can be "free" in the cytosol or attached to rough ER
Match the organelles with their characteristics.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Produces protein transport vesicles
Match the organelles with their characteristics.

Golgi apparatus
Possesses a cis and trans side; composed of cisternae
Match the organelles with their characteristics.

Centrioles
Composed of microtubules arranged in nine groups of three
Match the members of the cytoskeleton with their characteristics.

These thinnest members of the cytoskeleton are composed of strands of actin protein
Microfilaments
Match the members of the cytoskeleton with their characteristics.

These cytoskeleton members are tough, insoluble protein fibers that possess a high tensile strength
Intermediate filaments
Match the members of the cytoskeleton with their characteristics.

These hollow tubular members of the cytoskeleton are composed of spherical protein subunits called tubulin and can be quickly assembled and disassembled by the cell
Microtubules
Strands of DNA and associated histones in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell
Chromatin
Membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Nuclear envelope, or nuclear membrane
Tiny passageway that allows large molecules to freely pass in and out of the nucleus
Nuclear pore
Dark-staining body found in the nucleus of a cell that functions in producing ribosomes
Nucleolus
Jelly-like fluid found within the nucleus of a cell
Nucleoplasm
Dark-staining, rod-shaped structures composed of highly coiled chromatin, found in cells undergoing cell division
Chromosomes
Spherical protein molecules around which DNA wraps
Histones
Fine, uncoiled strands of DNA in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell
Extended chromatin
Dark-staining regions in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell composed of tightly coiled strands of DNA
Condensed chromatin
A section of DNA and its eight associated histone proteins
Nucleosome
Match the stages of interphase with the events that occur in each.

G1
The cell is metabolically active, synthesizing proteins, and growing rapidly
Match the stages of interphase with the events that occur in each.

G2
Cell division enzymes are synthesized, and the centrioles complete replication
Match the stages of interphase with the events that occur in each.

S
DNA replicates itself
Match the stages of mitosis with the events that occur in each.

Chromosomes line up along the cell equator
Metaphase
Match the stages of mitosis with the events that occur in each.

Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; centrioles move toward opposite poles of the cell
Prophase
Match the stages of mitosis with the events that occur in each.

Identical sets of chromosomes are moved to opposite sides of the cell
Anaphase
Match the stages of mitosis with the events that occur in each.

Chromosomes uncoil and revert to chromatin; nuclear membranes form around the sets of chromosomes
Telophase
Match the structures with their functions.

Ribosomes
Protein synthesis
Match the structures with their functions.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Lipid synthesis
Match the structures with their functions.

Lysosomes
Intracellular digestion
Match the structures with their functions.

Centrioles
Organize the spindle during mitosis
Match the structures with their functions.

Microtubules
Support the cell and give it shape; involved in cell movements
Match cell structures with the products that they produce.

Mitochondrion
ATP
Match cell structures with the products that they produce.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Transport vesicles
Match cell structures with the products that they produce.

Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes and secretory vesicles
Match cell structures with the products that they produce.

Nucleolus
Ribosomes
Match cell structures with the products that they produce.

Centrioles
Cilia and flagella (microtubules)
Match the stages of the cell cycle with the events occurring in each.

Cytokinesis
Division of the parent cell cytoplasm into two daughter cells
Match the stages of the cell cycle with the events occurring in each.

Mitosis
Separation of two identical sets of chromosomes to opposite sides of the parent cell
Match the stages of the cell cycle with the events occurring in each.

Interphase
Non-dividing stage involving rapid growth, DNA replication, and preparation for division
Match each type of membrane transport with the appropriate characteristics.

Diffusion
Random motion of a substance resulting in movement from area of high to lower concentration
Match each type of membrane transport with the appropriate characteristics.

Facilitated diffusion
A passive process utilizing a protein carrier or channel
Match each type of membrane transport with the appropriate characteristics.

Primary active transport
Movement of a substance that utilizes a carrier; energy comes directly from hydrolysis of ATP
Match each type of membrane transport with the appropriate characteristics.

Secondary active transport
Movement of a substance that utilizes a carrier, and has a concentration gradient as the source of energy
Match each form of RNA with its function.

mRNA
Carries genetic instructions from nucleus to the site of protein synthesis
Match each form of RNA with its function.

tRNA
Uses an anticodon to guide its attached amino acid to the complementary codon on the mRNA at the ribosome
Match each form of RNA with its function.

rRNA
Combines in a complex with proteins to make the large and small subunits of a ribosome
Match each form of RNA with its function.

microRNA
Can control, or inhibit, certain genes
Match the cell membrane structures.

Tight junction
Adjacent cells joined by a line of membrane proteins that form an impermeable junction
Match the cell membrane structures.

Desmosome
Button-like junctions that use linker proteins to hold adjacent cells together
Match the cell membrane structures.

Gap junctions
Adjacent cells held together by connexon proteins that form cylinders allowing ion flow between the cells' cytoplasm
Microvilli
Tiny fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane; increase surface area for absorption
Cilia
Motile cellular extensions found in large numbers in some epithelial cells
Flagella
Long, cellular projections that are tail-like and aid in propulsion
Hydrophobic
Water fearing
What critical event must occur before the sodium-potassium pump can transport sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane?
The pump must be phosphorylated.
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between facilitated diffusion and secondary active transport?
Secondary active transport requires an input of energy, while facilitated diffusion does not.
Which of the following statements best describes the difference between the simple diffusion of a solute and osmosis?
Most osmosis requires transport proteins, while simple diffusion of a solute never does.
When a molecule is transported via facilitated diffusion, ____________________.
it moves directly through the phospholipid bilayer
Which transport process allows for the movement of solid particles across the plasma membrane?
Phagocytosis
What kind of energy moves in waves?
Radiant energy
Ninety-six percent of body weight is made up of:
Only four elements (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen) make up 96% of the human body.
Each known element is designated with a one- or two-letter chemical shorthand known as the:
The atomic symbol is the one- or two-letter chemical shorthand designated to a chemical.
A homogenous mixture of gases, liquids, or solids is referred to as a:
a solution.
The difference between a colloid and a suspension is:
A colloid can undergo sol-gel transformation, whereas a suspension cannot.
Chemical bonds:
are energy relationships between the electrons of the reacting atoms.
The outermost energy shell of an atom is known as its:
valence shell.
An ionic bond is:
is a chemical bond formed by the transfer of one or more electrons from the outermost energy level (the valance shell) of one atom to that of the other.
Which of the following statements about a dipole is INCORRECT?
The dipole molecules are electrically balanced.
When atoms or molecules combine to form larger more complex molecules, the process is known as:
anabolism.
Reactions which release energy are:
exergonic reactions.
Which of the following factors would speed up the rate of a chemical reaction?
High concentration of reagents
Which of the following is considered the universal solvent?
Water
In hydrolysis:
a molecule of water is added for each bond broken.
All electrolytes are:
ions.
pH is a concentration unit used to measure the concentration of:
hydrogen ions in a solution.
Chaperonins aid in the desired folding of:
proteins.
Prostaglandins are:
lipids.
Which of the following lipids are thought to decrease heart disease?
Omega-3 fatty acids
The function of microRNA (miRNA) is to:
controls genetic expression by turning some genes on and others off, thus controlling genetic expression.
Sugars contain all of the following, except:
calcium.
An organic compound is analyzed, and it has twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. This compound is most likely a:
carbohydrate.
Catabolic reactions involve:
release of energy.
Buffers tend to prevent dramatic changes in the pH when ________ are added to a solution.
proton donors
Chemical reactions that release energy are:
exergonic.
Ionic bonds form between two atoms when:
one atom donates an electron to the other atom.
The building blocks of RNA and DNA are:
nucleotides.
The most important steroid molecule is:
cholesterol.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein constitutes the ________ structure of the protein.
primary
The smallest unit of life is the________.
cell
The outer boundary of a human cell is the:
plasma membrane.
Which of the following would not be found in the plasma membrane of a human cell?
Nucleic acids
Prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells
Tight junctions
Anchoring junctions found in areas subjected to pulling forces
Desmosomes
Important for cell communication
Gap junctions
Can water can readily diffuse through the plasma membrane?
Yes
Osmosis is:
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.
Which of the following pairs is a correct match?
Exocytosis: active transport
A cell will swell, and likely burst, if it is placed in a __________ solution.
hypotonic
Is primary active transport is driven by secondary active transport.
Yes
Pinocytosis is a type of___________.
endocytosis
Cells of the body mainly use _______ for the selective endocytosis of most macromolecules.
receptor-mediated endocytosis
At rest, are most body cells polarized?
True
The primary site of cellular ATP production is the:
mitochondrion.
Ribosomes are found:
in the cytosol and on the endoplasmic reticulum.
Match the cell structure to its function.

Ribosome
Protein synthesis
Match the cell structure to its function.

Nucleolus
RNA synthesis
Match the cell structure to its function.

Endoplasmic reticulum
Protein folding, packaging, and modification
Match the cell structure to its function.

Peroxisomes
Neutralize dangerous free radicals
Match the cell structure to its function.

Cytoskeleton
Support cellular structures
Match the cell structure to its function.

Lysosomes
Contain digestive enzymes
DNA is replicated during the ________ phase of the cell cycle.
S phase
A gene is best defined as:
a segment of DNA that carries instructions for the production of a polypeptide chain.
During transcription:
DNA is used as a template to make mRNA.
A person with appendicitis will most often present with pain in the:
right lower quadrant.
The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is called the:
frontal plane.
Homeostatic imbalance has occurred when a:
person becomes ill.
Select the option that shows increasing complexity levels.
Cellular, tissue, organ, organ system
Approximately what percentage of the air we breathe is made of oxygen?
20%
The cranial cavity is housed in:
the dorsal body cavity.
What is NOT one of the three components of homeostatic control systems?
Stimulus (cause of the initial change)
The respiratory system contains the:
trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
The spleen is the largest organ in the:
lymphatic system.
Which of the following would be an example of positive feedback?
Release of oxytocin to increase the strength of labor contractions
Which internal organ is NOT housed in the ventral body cavity?
Spinal cord
Which of the following body systems acts as a fast-acting control system for the body?
Nervous
Which of the following body systems functions to produce blood cells?
Skeletal
What is NOT a necessary human life function?
Intelligence
Which one of the following requires magnification to study?
Microscopic anatomy
Which one of the following covers an organ?
Visceral pericardium
The branch of anatomy that traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span is referred to as:
developmental anatomy.
The ability to sense changes in the environment and respond to them is a physiological ability known as:
responsiveness.
If the human body temperature drops slightly below 37° C (98.6° F), the following occurs:
Metabolic reactions become slower
What is the correct positioning of the thumbs when placing the body in the anatomical position?:
In the anatomical position the thumbs point outwards, or laterally.
Which of the following is/are not included in axial part of the body?
The upper limbs
The midsagittal plane:
divides the body in two equal but non-identical left and right parts along the midline.
Which of the following organs lies in the dorsal cavity?
The spinal cord
The body cavity which houses the lung is known as the:
the pleural cavity.
If you know that the appendix lies in the right lower part of the trunk, you could also say it lies in the:
right inguinal region.
The visceral serosa membrane:
covers the outer surface of organs in a body cavity.
All the following are true about serous fluid, except that:
it increases the friction produced by the movement of the organs with which it is associated.
The cavity between bones at the joint is known as
the synovial cavity.
Positron emission tomography (PET):
excels in observing metabolic processes.
What is the definition of physiology?
The study of how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
What is macroscopic anatomy?
The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
What is embryology?
Embryology is a subdivision of anatomy that deals with developmental changes that occur before birth.
Blood flows in one direction through the heart because the heart has valves that prevent backflow. This phenomenon exemplifies:
the principle of complementarity of structure and function.
What represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive?
Organismal level
The human body as a whole is enclosed and protected by the integumentary system. This is an example of a necessary life function. Select the correct function from the list below.
Maintaining Boundaries
Does metabolism include breaking down substances into their simpler building blocks, synthesizing complex cellular structures from simpler substances, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP.
True
What process require a receptor, a control center, and an effector?
Homeostatic control
What is an example of a positive feedback mechanism?
Blood clotting
What is an example of positive feedback mechanisms?
The result or response enhances the original stimulus, and the response is accelerated.
Is the knee is distal to the thigh.
True
Why are directional terms so important?
They allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another.
Is the breastbone is ventral to the spine?
True
Is the chin is cranial to the navel?
True
Is it possible for slight anatomical variations to occur in a human body; for example, a nerve or blood vessel may be somewhat out of place, or a small muscle may be missing?
True
What is the regional term designating the limbs?
The appendicular part
Does the coronal plane divides the body into anterior and posterior parts?
True
What best describes a sagittal plane?
A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts.
The ventral body cavity is subdivided into which of the following cavities?
The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
A serosa, or serous membrane, can be found within which one of the following body cavities?
The ventral body cavity
What is a bond in which electrons are NOT shared equally?
Polar covalent bond
What is a bond in which electrons are completely lost or gained by the atoms involved?
Ionic bond
What is a bond in which electrons are equally shared?
Nonpolar covalent bond
What is a type of bond important in tying different parts of the same molecule together into a three-dimensional structure?
Hydrogen bond
What is an electrically charged particle from loss of an electron?
Cation
What is a neutral subatomic particle?
Neutron
What is the smallest particle of an element that retains is properties?
Atom
What is the smallest particle of a compound that still retains its properties?
Molecule
What is an electrically charged particle from gain of an electron?
Anion
What kind of energy is legs moving the pedals of a bicycle?
Mechanical energy
What kind of energy is bonds of ATP are broken, energy is released to do cellular work?
Chemical energy
What is the energy that travels in waves; part of the electromagnetic spectrum?
Radiant energy
What energy is represented by the flow of charged particles along a conductor or the flow of ions across a membrane?
Electrical energy
What is an example of a sex hormones?
Steroids
What do eicosanoids do?
Regulate inflammation
What are integral to cell membranes?
Phospholipids
What is used as energy stores and for insulation?
Triglycerides
The linear sequence of amino acids comprising a protein chain
Primary structure
Composed of alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets
Secondary structure
lpha and beta regions fold upon each other
Tertiary structure
Two or more proteins aggregated together
Quaternary structure
A + B → AB
Synthesis reaction
AB → A + B
Decomposition
AB + C → AC + B
Exchange reaction
A + B ←→ AB
Reversible reaction
What is a lipid with all single bonds?
Saturated
What is a lipid with one double bond?
Monounsaturated
What is a lipid with more than one double bond?
Polyunsaturated
What is a Trans fat?
"Bad" fats
What is an Omega-3 fats
"Good" fats
What is a property of matter?
Matter can exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous states.
What best defines potential energy?
Potential energy is stored energy, which has the capacity to do work, but is not presently doing so.
Something with a pH of 5 would _____.
have more H+ ions than OH- ions
Do all organic molecules contain carbon?
True
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

Proteins
Amino Acids
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

DNA
Nucleotides
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

Lipids
Glycerol and fatty acids
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
What is not one of the four basic elements that comprise approximately 96% of a human's body weight?
Potassium
Is the atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus?
True
What is true of an isotope?
Isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
If the pH or temperature of the environment that contains a protein is altered dramatically, then the protein may:
become denatured.
Something with a pH of 5 would _____.
have more H+ ions than OH- ions
Do all organic molecules contain carbon?
True
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

Proteins
Amino Acids
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

DNA
Nucleotides
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

Lipids
Glycerol and fatty acids
Match the following organic molecules to their biochemical building blocks/precursors.

Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides
What is not one of the four basic elements that comprise approximately 96% of a human's body weight?
Potassium
Is the atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus?
True
What is true of an isotope?
Isotopes have the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons they contain.
If the pH or temperature of the environment that contains a protein is altered dramatically, then the protein may:
become denatured.
What is true of atoms?
Atoms of any given element will differ from those of all other elements and provide its unique physical and chemical properties.
What does not represent an accurate hierarchy in the natural combination of matter?
When two or more similar kinds of atoms bind, they form an isotope.
What do Buffers do?
stabilize pH.
In biochemistry, and thus in the body, the universal solvent is:
water.
Are emulsions heterogeneous mixtures?
True
In an ionic bond:
there is a transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.
Are nonpolar molecules are electrically balanced due to the equal sharing of electrons between the atoms of the molecules?
True
What type of chemical reactions involves atoms or molecules combining to form a larger, more complex molecule?
Synthesis
What is not a way to distinguish an acid from a base?
An acidic substance will have a sticky feel.
Are enzymes are unchanged in a reaction; they can be reused, and are not needed in large quantities?
True
Is the major function of RNA is to carry out the genetic instructions for protein synthesis?
True
What is not true of DNA?
DNA carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by RNA.
What is a primary energy-transferring molecule in cells?
ATP
Lines the pericardial cavity
Parietal pericardium
Covers the heart
Visceral pericardium
Lines the thoracic cavity
Parietal pleura
Covers the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
Visceral peritoneum
Lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Parietal peritoneum
The lower-middle portion of the abdomen
Hypogastric region
The upper-middle portion of the abdomen
Epigastric region
The abdominal regions that are lateral to the hypogastric region
Right and left inguinal regions
The abdominal regions that are lateral to the umbilical region
Left and right lumbar regions
The abdominal regions that are lateral to the epigastric region
Right and left hypochondriac regions
Femoral
Thigh
Crural
Leg
A sheet of cells that covers a body surface and lines a body cavity
Epithelial Tissue
Shapes of Epithelial Tissue

Squamous
Scale-like or flat
Shapes of Epithelial Tissue

Cuboidal
Cube-shaped
Shapes of Epithelial Tissue

Columnar
Tall and column shaped
Shapes of Epithelial Tissue

Transitional
Stretchy and variably shaped
Arrangement of Epithelial Tissue

Simple
Same cell type in a single layer
Arrangement of Epithelial Tissue

Stratified
Arranged in several layers
Arrangement of Epithelial Tissue

Psuedostratified
Columnar epithelial that looks layered but is not
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Simple Squamous
Air sacs of the lungs and lines blood vessels
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Simple Cuboidal
Glands and in kidney
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Simple Columnar
Digestive Tract
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Psuedostratified Columnar
Upper Respiratory tract
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Stratified Squamous
Skin Epidermis
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Stratified Cuboidal
Ducts of large glands (rare in human body)
Locations of Epithelial Tissue

Transitional
Hollow urinary system organs
3 Types of muscle tissue
Skeletal, Smooth and Cardiac
What statement best describes the fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane?
The fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane is composed of two layers of lipid molecules with protein molecules dispersed within.
What is NOT a function performed by proteins found in the plasma membrane?
Some plasma membrane proteins are receptors for chemical messenger molecules.
Crenation takes place when a cell is placed in a(n):
hypertonic solution.
The underlying cause of Tay Sachs disease is:
the lack of the enzymes needed to breakdown a glycolipid, which is abundant in nerve cell membranes.