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104 Cards in this Set

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03. Define data
Evidence
10. A hypothesis should be tested by a controlled experiment which does what?
A hypothesis should be tested by an experiment in which only one variable is changed at a time.
11. List the order of the levels of organization in order of most complex to least complex.
Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, groups of cells, cells, and molecules.
12. Describe a compound microscope.
Compound microscope-allows light to pass through the specimen and use 2 lenses to form an image.
13. What two theories help to explain why mammals have evolved as they have in Australia?
The theories of plate tectonics and evolution help explain why mammals have evolved as they have in Australia.
14. What is the Theory of spontaneous generation?
Spontaneous Generation-hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter.
15. What is a hypothesis?
Hypothesis-possible explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question.
16. What do scientist use the electron microscope for?
Use electron microscopes because these microscopes can form images of objects 1000 times smaller than those visible under a light microscope.
17. What is an Ion? What charge will an ion have if it gains an electron? loses an electron?
ion-positively & negatively charged atoms. Gain electron the ion will become negatively charged. Loses an electron becomes positively charged.
18. What are suspensions?
suspensions-mix of water & nondissolved material.
19. What is a catalyst and how do they work?
catalyst-that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction catalysts work by lowering a reaction's activation energy.
20 What's happening with the electrons in an ionic bond? A covalent bond?
ionic bond is formed when one or more elctrons are transferred from one atom to another.
21. Large organic molecules or macromolecules are formed by the process of? Describe it?
Macromolecules are formed by a process known as polymerization. Polymerization-which large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together.
22. What are the smaller units of this larger polymer called?
smaller units, or monomers.
24. The monomers of starch, a polysaccharide, are?
The monomers in starch polymers are sugar molecules.
25. What are the basic units of fats or lipids?
lipids are made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms.
26. What are the monomers of nucleic acids? Proteins?
Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides. Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids.
28. List the functions of proteins. (key concept)
Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Some are used to form bones & muscles. Others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.
29. What is the function of nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information.
30. What effect do enzymes have on the chemical reactions in the cell?
Cells use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells.
31. Describe the concentration of H ions in an acid and a base.
Acidic solutions contain higher concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and have ph values below 7. Basic, or alkaline, solutions contain lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water & have ph values above 7.
32. What is an element's atomic number equal to?
The number of protons in an atom of an element is the element's atomic number
33. What is an element's atomic mass equal to?
The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is called its mass number.
34. In a solution of salt water, which is the solute? The solvent?
Table salt is the solute and water is the solvent.
35. Define population, community.
Population-group of organisms of one type that live in the same area. Community-populations that live together in a defined area.
36. What are producers? consumers?
Producers-organisms that make their own food also called autotrophs. Consumers-organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply are also called heterotrophs.
37. What are autotrophs? Heterotrophs?
Autotrophs-organism that make their own food. Heterotrops-organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply.
38. What's an herbivore? carnivore?
Herbivores obtain energy by eating only plants. Carnivores eat animals.
39. What is the role of a decomposer?
Decomposer breaks down organic matter.
40.What is a food web?
Food web is when the feeding relationships among various organisms in an ecosystem form a network of complex interactions.
41. What is an ecosystem?
Ecosystem is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment.
42. What is a biome?
Biome is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominate communities.
43. What is not recycled in the biosphere?
Energy is not recycled in the biosphere.
44. Only 10% of the energy can be passed to the next trophic level. What happens to the other 90%
The other 90% is lost as heat.
45. How can a predator increase the number of certain species in its habitat?
Eat less have less babies can increase # of certain species.
46. Define mutualism. give an ex.
Mutualism - both species benefit from the relationship. For ex. flowers depend on certain species.
47. What is commensalism?
Commensalism-one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
48. What is parasitism? What is a host?
Parasitism- on organism lives on or inside another organism & harms it. Host-the parasite obtains all or part of its nutritional needs from the other organism.
49. What is a niche? Why can several species of warbler birds live in the same tree?
Niche-is the full range of physical & biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions. Because each warbler species has a different niche in its spruce tree habitat.
51. What are some of the factors that decrease biodiversity?
Human activity can reduce biodiversity by altering habitats, hunting species to extinction, introducing toxic compounds into food webs, and introducing foreign species to new environments.
52.What is global warming and what is causing it?
Global warming-increase in average temp. of the biosphere. Global warming is caused by human activity.
53. What chemicals are contributing to acid rain?
Acid rain results from the chemical transformation of nitrogen & sulfur products that come from human activities.
54. The chemical that is contributing to ozone depletion is?
Chlorofluorocarbons, CFCs
56. What is logistic growth? What does the curve look like?
Logistic growth occurs when a population growth slows/stops following a period of exponential growth. Curve-S shaped
57. If the first level of an energy pyramid contains 10,000 calories of energy, how much energy is available on the third level?
100 is available on 3rd level
58. Nitrogen is one of the elements recycled in the biosphere. Why is it important to living organisms?
All organisms need nitrogen to make amino acids. Amino acids make proteins that is why it is important to living organisms.
60. What is transpiration?
Transpiration-process by which water enters the atmospher.
61. What does the ozone layer protect us from?
Ozone layer protects us from harmful UV light.
62. What is competition? What happens when there is direct competition for the same resources?
Competition occurs when organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time.
63. What is active transport? It requires what?
Active transport-the material moves from an area of lower concentration to area greater concentration. Requires input of energy.
64. What is the major difference btw a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell?
The cells of eukaryotes have a nucleus, but the cells of prokaryotes do not.
65. What kinds of organisms are prokaryotic?
Bacteria
67. What is facilitated diffusion? Does it require an input of energy?
Facilitate diffusion-movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
68. The nucleus contains DNA. Why is DNA so important to the cell?
DNA contains hereditary information.
71. Where is the cytoplasm located?
Cytoplasm located inside cell membrane.
72. What are organelles?
Organelles-specialized organs.
73. What is an isotonic solution?
isotonic solution-when the concentration on both sides of the membrane are the same.
74. If a cell is in a hypotonic solution, which way will the water move, into or out of the cell? In a hypertonic solution?
Hypertonic-"above strength"
Hypotonic solution-"below strength" The hypotonic solution water moves in and hypertonic solution water moves out.
75. What are the 3 major parts of the nucleus?
Nucleolus, chromatin, and nuclear envelope are 3 major parts of the nucleus.
76. What two structures aid in cell movement?
Cytoskeleton and microtubules help aid in cell movement.
78. What do ribosomes produce?
Ribosomes produce proteins.
79. What is the function of a lysosome?
Lysosomes break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from food into particles that can be used by the rest of the cell.
80. What is diffusion?
Diffusion-process by which molecules of a substance move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
81. Carbon Dioxide is used to make what in photosynthesis?
Energy rich sugars, and removes Carbon Dioxide from the atmosphere.
82. What 3 types of molecules make up ATP?
Adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups make up ATP.
83. What molecule forms when energy is released from ATP?
ADP is formed when energy is released from ATP.
84. What is produced by the CALVIN CYCLE of PHOTOSYNTHESIS?
High-energy sugars are produced by the calvin cycle.
85. What are the 3 things produced in the light reaction?
Oxygen gas, ATP, and NADPH are produced in the light-dependent reactions.
86. What are the 3 products of cellular respiration?
Carbon dioxide, water and energy are the 3 products of cellular respiration.
87. Why are photosynthesis and respiration considered opposites of each other?
Because photosynthesis stores energy and respiration releases it. Photosynthesis reactants are respirations products and vice-versa.
89. What part of cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm? In the mitochondria?
Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The electron transport chain and the cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria.
90. What molecule enters the Krebs Cycle?
Pyruvic acid enters the Krebs Cycle.
91. What chemical regulates the timing in the cell cycle?
Cyclin regulates the timing in the cell cycle.
92. What does a defect in gene P53 cause? How?
It halts the cell cycle until all chromosomes have been properly replicated.
93. What does the spindle do during mitosis?
The spindle helps separate the chromosomes.
94. What is the difference in cytokinesis btw plant and animal cells?
Plant cells- a cell plate forms midway btw the divided nuclei. The cell plate gradually develops into a separating membrane. A cell wall begins to appear in cell plate.
95. What are the 2 main stages of cell division?
?
96. Diagram and label a chromosome?
?
97. The first phase of mitosis is called?
?
98. What are the main events of metaphase?
?
99. Diagram and label the events of the cell cycle?
?
100. What is the cell cycle?
?
101. During what part of the cell cycle are the chromosomes visible?
?
102. As the cell increases in length or size, describe the relationship btw volume and surface area?
?
103. The rate at which exchange take place btw a cell and its environment depends on what? The rate that wastes are produced depends on?
?
104. What are the two main reasons cells divide?
?
66. Why does diffusion occur?
Move materials from low concentration to high concentration.
70. What is the function of the mitochondria?
to produce energy from food.
02. In the Redi exp. to disprove spontaneous generation, describe the controlled variables, the manipulated variable, and the responding variable.
Control variable-jars, type of meat, location, temp, time.
Manipulated variable-gauze covering
Responding variable-whether maggots appear
05. Science differs from other disciplines because after proposing an explanation it will do what?
Science differs from other disciplines because after proposing explanations that can be tested by examining evidence.
06. Define cell fractionation
Cell fractionation-separate the different cell parts.
07. What is homeostasis?
homeostasis-the process by which organisms keep the internal conditions relatively stable.
09. Convert 5.4km to cm
1 meter =100 cm
1000 m =100,000 cm
100,000 X 5.4 = 540,000 cm
01. List the characteristics of living things.
made up of units called cell, reproduce, are based on universal genetic code, grow & develop, obtain & use materials & energy, respond to their environment, maintain a stable internal environment, taken as a group living things change over time.
04. What are scanning electron microscopes used for?
Electron microscopes focus beams of electrons on specimens. These microscopes can form images of objects 1000 times smaller than those visible under a light microscope.
08. Define metabolism
metabolism-combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
23. What is the basic unit or monomer of a carbohydrate?
Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen atoms.
27. The unequal sharing of electrons makes a water molecule polar. Which side is slightly positive? slightly negative?
The negative pole is near the oxygen atom and the positive pole is btw the hydrogen atoms.
50. Define biotic and abiotic factors. Give ex.
Biotic factors the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem. Ex. birds, trees, mushrooms, & bacteria. Abiotic factors physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems. Ex. Climate, temp, precipitation, & humidity.
55. What is exponential growth? What does the curve look like?
Exponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate. Curve-J shaped
59. How does water reenter the atmosphere?
Water can enter the atmosphere by evaporating from leaves of plants in the process of transpirations.
69. Even after equilibrium is reached, what is happening to the molecules on each side of the membrane?
They keep moving from one side to the other.
77. What is the main function of the cell membrane?
The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
88. What are the 3 major steps in cellular respiration?
Glycolysis, krebs cycle, and electron transport chain are the 3 major steps in cellular respiration.