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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cell respiration
The chemical reactions that occur within a cell to produce energy.
Arobic Respiration
When the final acceptor is a Water molecule (O2)
Anaerobic Respiration
When the final acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than water.
When the final acceptor is an organic molecule.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Is the main fuel source of the cell.
Consists of 1. Ribose 2. Adenine 3. Triphosphate group
ATP synthase
A transmembrane protein that produces ATP when protons pass thru it.
Substrate Level Phosporylation
When a molecule that contains a high-energy phospate bond transfers the phosphate group to ADP(diphosphate) and it becomes ATP (triphosphate)
Define Glycolysis
The first stage of cell respiration. This is the process in which a molecule of glucose yields energy.
Section 1; Priming (Glycolysis).
A phosphate group from two ATP molecules is added to the six-carbon glucose molecule, creating a 6-carbon molecule with two phosphate groups.
Section 2; Cleavage (Glycolysis).
The 6-carbon molecule with two phosphates is divided, yielding two three(3)-carbon molecules with one phosphate group each.
Section 3; Harvesting Energy Reactions (Glycolysis).
The two three(3)-carbon molecules with the phosphate group are converted into pyruvate. This reduces NAD to NADH and produces two molecules of ATP per each molecule converted to pyruvate. Creating 4 ATP molecules but netting 2.
Where does Glycolysis Happen?
The enzymes that catalyze the glycolysis reactions are in the cytoplasm of the cell, not bound to any membranes or organelles.
Pyruvate Oxidation
The second stage of Cellular respiration. Each of the two Pyruvate molecules resulting from glycolysis are converted into carbon dioxide and a two-carbon molecule called Acetyl-CoA. For every pyruvate converted one molecule of NAD is reduced to NADH.
Define the Krebs Cycle.
The Krebs cycle is the process in which Acetyl-CoA the product from pyruvate oxidation, is put through a series of oxidations yielding ATP molecules and energy to reduce NAD and FADH.
Section 1; Krebs Cycle.
The krebs cycle begins when a two-carbon fragment from Acetyl-CoA is transfered to a four-carbon molecule.
Section 2; Krebs Cycle.
The resulting 6 carbon molecule is oxidized and decarboxylated, therefore yielding a carbon molecule to form CO2 and reducing NAD to NADH. This process happens twice, and a coupled reaction generates ATP.
Section 3; Krebs Cycle.
Finally the resulting 4-carbon molecule is further oxidized and reduces FADH to FADH2 and NAD to
Result of Glycolysis.
4 ATP molecules.
12 Electron Carriers (10 NADH and 2 FADH2).
Define Electron Transport Chain.
The Fourth stage of cellular respiration. This is the process in which the NADH and FADH molecules carry electrons to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where they transfer the electrons to a series of membrane proteins collectively called the electron transport chain.
Explain the electron transport chain process.
(a)The NADH molecule releases the electrons at the NAD drhydrogenase enzyme,(b)then a carrier called ubiquinone passes the electrons to the bc1 complex,(c)then the electrons are carried by the carrier cytochrome c to the cytochrome oxidase complex. This complex (cytochrome oxidase) uses four electrons to reduce a molecule of oxygen which then combines with two hydrogen ions to form water. These complex operate as proton pumps, driving a proton out across the membranes.

FADH2 which is always in the inner mitochondrial membrane, feeds its electrons to the carrier ubiquinone.
In order; What is involved in the Eletron Transport chain.
1. NADH hydrogenase.
2. carrier ubiquinone.
3. bc1 complex
4. carrier cytochrome
4. cytochrome oxidase complex.
Define Chemiosmosis.
The process in which the entry of protons that were pumped out by the electron transport chain,
activate the ATP Synthase which results in ATP.
Theoretically 36 molecules of ATP are yielded.

Actually 30 are created.
How is aerobic respiration regulated?
Relative levels of ADP and ATP regulate the catabolism of glucose at two key reactions.

1.phosphofructokinase (glycolysis).
2. Citrate synthase (krebs cycle).
Define Fermentation
When the results from the glycolytic breakdown of glucose are donated to oganic molecules.

1. Ethanol fermentation.
2. Lactic acid fermentation.
How are proteins catabolized?
Proteins are used by deaminatin their aminoacids and then caabolizing the product.
How are fats catabolized?
Fats are utilized by beta-oxidation.