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20 Cards in this Set

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factor in the environment that can cause mutatinos in DNA
mutagen
a change that occurs in only one nucleotide
point mutation
section of DNA that serves as the binding site for the enzyme RNA polymerase
promoter
gene that causes a cell to become cancerous
oncogene
part of a chromosome breaks off, turns around, and reattaches in the reverse order
inversion
process by which an prganism's genotype (genetic makeup) is translated into its phenotype (the traits)
protein synthesis
single stranded nucleic acid that is involved in protein synthesis
RNA
three-base section of mRNA
codon
chromosome part breaks off and attaches to a different, nonhomologous chromosome
translocation
process by which the "language" of nucleic acids (bases) is changed into the "language" of proteins (amino acids)
translation
when a chromosome breaks and a piece of the chromosome is lost
deletion
random change in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA
mutation
a sequence of three bases found on tRNA
anticodon
the first stage where the genetic information from a strand of DNA is copied into a strand of RNA
transcription
protein that binds to DNA, turning off the genes that code for the digestive enzymes
repressor
when part of a chromosome breaks off and is incorperated into its homologous chromosome
duplication
noncoding regions of DNA or RNA
introns
agent that causes or tends to cause cancer
carcinogen
deletion of addition of nucleotides that disrupts codons
frameshift mutation
sections of DNA or RNA that do not contain codes for proteins
exons