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66 Cards in this Set

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Where do autotrophs get energy to produce food?
The Sun
How do living things use ATIP?
They use ATP for storing energy
How is one molecule of ATP formed from one molecule of ADP?
Add one more phosphate molecule to form ATP
HOw does a change from ATOP to ADP provide an organism with energy?:
Energy is released when ATP is changed to ADP
What are two ways in which cells use the eneryg provided by ATp?
Active Transport and movement inside the cell.
What type of organisms gather energy from the sun? What are they called?
Plants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.
Autotrophs
What type of organism gather energy from other sources than the sun? What are they called?
Other organisms, such as animals, cannot use the sun’s energy directly. They obtain energy from the foods they consume
Heterotrophs
What is ATP? What does it stand for?
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store energy. ATP is used by all types of cells as their basic energy source. It is used for active transport (inside and out the cell) and movement in the cell.
Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in carbohydrates like glucose.
What is photosynthesis?
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
What did van Helmont discover?
Water is vital to the survival.
What did Priestley discover?
Noted a candle would burn out quickly when in a jar but if a plant is placed in the jar, the candle burns longer.
What did Jan Ingenhousz discover?
Green parts of plants revive the air, but only in sunlight. CO2 feeds plants.
What did de Saussure discover?
Removal of CO2 is done by plants. Water feeds plants.
waht is the over equation for photosynthesis? wHAT IS THE use of photosynthesis?
6CO2+6H2O-->C2H12O6+6O2

Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy sugars.
Explain ho light energy affects a chlorophyll molecule.
Chlorophyll absorb light from the sun as to produce energy an doxygen. They do not absorb the colour green.
What are chlorophyll?
chlorophyll
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms; captures light energy
The light dependent reactions take place where?
In the photosynthetic membranes.
The light-independent reactions are also known as the what?
Calvin Cycle.
The energy carriers what and what are produced during the light-dependent reactions.
NADP+ and ATP
In the light-dependant reactions, the gas what is produced.
O2
High-energy sugars are produced during the what reactions?
light-independant reactions.
The light-independent reactions take palce in the what?
Stroma.
HOw are photosystem I and photosystem II different and similar?
PI produces ATP and NADPH form ADP and nADP+/ PII used ATP and NADPH to produce high energy sugars.
What is the stroma? What is the granum?
The stroma is the space outside the thylakoid membranes. The granum is the stack of thylakoids.
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place in?
In the stroma.
What does NADPH do?
When sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll, the electrons gain a great deal of energy. These high-energy electrons require a special carrier. When NADP+ accepts a pair of high-energy electrons, it becomes NADPH. The NADPH can then carry high-energy electrons produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell. These high-energy electrons are used to help build molecules like glucose
What is light-dependent reactions? What is the process?
The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
Photosynthesis begins when pigments in photosystem II absorb light. The first photosystem in the light-dependent reactions is called photosystem II because it was discovered after photosystem I. Energy from the light is absorbed by electrons, increasing their energy level. These high-energy electrons are passed on to the electron transport chain. The thylakoid membrane contains a system that provides new electrons to chlorophyll to replace the ones it has lost. These new electrons come from water molecules (H2O). Enzymes on the inner surface of the thylakoid membrane break up each water molecule into 2 electrons, 2 H+ ions, and 1 oxygen atom. The 2 electrons replace the high-energy electrons that chlorophyll has lost to the electron transport chain. The oxygen is eventually released into the air as oxygen gas (O2). The 2 H+ ions are released inside the thylakoid membrane. High-energy electrons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to photosystem I. Energy from the electrons is used by the molecules in the electron transport chain to transport H+ ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid.

Pigments in photosystem I use energy from light to reenergize the electrons. NADP+ then picks up these high-energy electrons at the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane, plus a H+ ion, and becomes NADPH. As a result of the H+ ions released during water-splitting and electron transport, the inside of the thylakoid membrane becomes positively charged and the outside becomes negatively charged. The difference in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make ATP. H+ ions cannot cross the membrane directly. However, the membrane contains a protein called ATP synthase (sin-thays) that allows H+ ions to pass through it. As H+ ions pass through this protein, the protein rotates like a turbine being spun by water in a hydroelectric power plant. As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.
What is the Calvin cycle and what is it's process?
The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.

Six carbon dioxide molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide molecules combine with six 5-carbon molecules. The result is twelve 3-carbon molecules. The twelve 3-carbon molecules are then converted into higher-energy forms. The energy for this conversion comes from ATP and high-energy electrons from NADPH. Two of the twelve 3-carbon molecules are converted into two similar 3-carbon molecules. These 3-carbon molecules are used to form various 6-carbon sugars and other compounds. The remaining ten 3-carbon molecules are converted back into six 5-carbon molecules. These molecules combine with six new carbon dioxide molecules to begin the next cycle.
The Calvin cycle uses six molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6-carbon sugar molecule. As photosynthesis proceeds, the Calvin cycle works steadily, turning out energy-rich sugars and removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The plant uses the sugars for energy and to build more complex carbohydrates such as starches and cellulose, which it needs for growth and development. When other organisms eat plants, they can also use the energy stored in carbohydrates.
The process in which food molecules are borken down in the presence of oxygen to release energy is called what?
cellular respiration.
During glycolysis, one molecule of what is broken in half?
Glucose/
Where do autotrophs get energy to produce food?
The Sun
How do living things use ATIP?
They use ATP for storing energy
How is one molecule of ATP formed from one molecule of ADP?
Add one more phosphate molecule to form ATP
HOw does a change from ATOP to ADP provide an organism with energy?:
Energy is released when ATP is changed to ADP
What are two ways in which cells use the eneryg provided by ATp?
Active Transport and movement inside the cell.
What type of organisms gather energy from the sun? What are they called?
Plants and some other types of organisms are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food.
Autotrophs
What type of organism gather energy from other sources than the sun? What are they called?
Other organisms, such as animals, cannot use the sun’s energy directly. They obtain energy from the foods they consume
Heterotrophs
What is ATP? What does it stand for?
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store energy. ATP is used by all types of cells as their basic energy source. It is used for active transport (inside and out the cell) and movement in the cell.
Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in carbohydrates like glucose.
What is photosynthesis?
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to power chemical reactions that convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
What did van Helmont discover?
Water is vital to the survival.
What did Priestley discover?
Noted a candle would burn out quickly when in a jar but if a plant is placed in the jar, the candle burns longer.
What did Jan Ingenhousz discover?
Green parts of plants revive the air, but only in sunlight. CO2 feeds plants.
What did de Saussure discover?
Removal of CO2 is done by plants. Water feeds plants.
waht is the over equation for photosynthesis? wHAT IS THE use of photosynthesis?
6CO2+6H2O-->C2H12O6+6O2

Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy sugars.
Explain ho light energy affects a chlorophyll molecule.
Chlorophyll absorb light from the sun as to produce energy an doxygen. They do not absorb the colour green.
The process in which food molecules are broken down in the presence
of oxygen to release energy is called .
cellular respiration
During glycolysis, one molecule of what is
broken in half.
glucose
During glycolysis, NAD is converted to
NADH
Glycolysis produces a net gain of how many ATP molecules for each reaction?
2
The products of alcoholic fermentation are what?
carbon dioxide, alcohol and lactic acid.
What is an anaerobic process?
it does not require oxygen.
How does fermentations allow the production of ATP to continue?
Fermentation also produces energy in ATP, just without oxygen.
What is a calorie?
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 Celsius degree.
What is glycolysis?
glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid n the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is followed by the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.
What is cellular respiration?
Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What are the 3 steps in cellular respiration?
glycolosis, krebs cycle and elctron transport chain.
What is the process of glycolysis?
Even though glycolysis is an energy-releasing process, the cell needs to put in a little energy to get things going. At the pathway’s beginning, 2 molecules of ATP are used up. Although the cell puts 2 ATP molecules into its “account” to get glycolysis going, when glycolysis is complete, 4 ATP molecules have been produced. This gives the cell a net gain of 2 ATP molecules. One of the reactions of glycolysis removes 4 high-energy electrons and passes them to an electron carrier called NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Like NADP+ in photosynthesis, each NAD+ accepts a pair of high-energy electrons. This molecule, known as NADH, holds the electrons until they can be transferred to other molecules. By doing this, NAD+ helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell. In just a few seconds, all of the cell’s available NAD+ molecules are filled up with electrons. Without NAD+, the cell cannot keep glycolysis going, and ATP production stops.
Describe the process of Fermentation.
fermentation
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen

THis is followed after glycolysis if oxygen is not present.
During fermentation, cells convert NADH to NAD+ by passing high-energy electrons back to pyruvic acid. This action converts NADH back into the electron carrier NAD+, allowing glycolysis to continue producing a steady supply of ATP. Because fermentation does not require oxygen, it is said to be anaerobic. The term anaerobic means “not in air.” The two main types of fermentation are alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.
Alcoholic fermentation produces carbon dioxide as well as alcohol. Because this type of fermentation produces lactic acid, it is called lactic acid fermentation
How is pyruvic acid used in the Krebs cycle?
Pyruvic acid breaks down to form citis acid.
How are glycolysis and cellular respiration related?
For cellular respiration to fully occur, pyruvic acid must be produced by glycolysis.
What is needed to complete cellular respiration?
Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are said to be aerobic.
Describe the Krebs cycle.
During the Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis enters the mitochondrion. One carbon atom from pyruvic acid becomes part of a molecule of carbon dioxide, which is eventually released into the air. Two of the 3 carbon atoms are joined to a compound called coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA. (The acetyl part of acetyl-CoA is made up of 2 carbon atoms, 1 oxygen atom, and 3 hydrogen atoms.) Acetyl-CoA then adds the 2-carbon acetyl group to a 4-carbon molecule, producing a 6-carbon molecule called citric acid. citric acid is broken down into a 4-carbon molecule, more carbon dioxide is released, and electrons are transferred to energy carriers. For each turn of the cycle, a molecule equivalent to ATP is produced For each turn of the cycle, 5 pairs of high-energy electrons are captured by 5 carrier molecules: 4 NADH molecules and 1 FADH2. FAD (flavine adenine dinucleotide) and FADH2 are molecules similar to NAD+ and NADH, respectively.
What happens to each of these Krebs cycle products? First, the carbon dioxide released is the source of all the carbon dioxide in your breath. Every time you exhale, you expel the carbon dioxide produced by the Krebs cycle. Next, the ATP produced directly in the Krebs cycle can be used for cellular activities. However, what does the cell do with all those high-energy electrons in carriers like NADH? In the presence of oxygen, those high-energy electrons can be used to generate huge amounts of ATP.
What is the electron transport chain?
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
High-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed into and along the electron transport chain. In eukaryotes, the electron transport chain is composed of a series of carrier proteins that is located in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. In prokaryotes, the same chain is in the cell membrane. High-energy electrons are passed from one carrier protein to the next. At the end of the electron transport chain is an enzyme that combines electrons from the electron chain with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water oxygen is essential for getting rid of low-energy electrons and hydrogen ions, the wastes of cellular respiration. Every time 2 high-energy electrons transport down the electron transport chain, their energy is used to transport hydrogen ions (H+) across the membrane. During electron transport, H+ ions build up in the intermembrane space, making it positively charged. The other side of the membrane, from which those H+ ions have been taken, is now negatively charged.Every time 2 high-energy electrons transport down the electron transport chain, their energy is used to transport hydrogen ions (H+) across the membrane. During electron transport, H+ ions build up in the intermembrane space, making it positively charged. The other side of the membrane, from which those H+ ions have been taken, is now negatively charged. How does the cell use the charge differences that build up as a result of electron transport? The inner membranes of the mitochondria contain protein spheres called ATP synthases. As H+ ions escape through channels into these proteins, the ATP synthases spin. Each time it rotates, the enzyme grabs a low-energy ADP and attaches a phosphate, forming high-energy ATP. On average, each pair of high-energy electrons that moves down the electron transport chain provides enough energy to convert 3 ADP molecules into 3 ATP molecules.
How many ATP molecules are produced through cellular respirtaion?
ATP Production The complete breakdown of glucose through cellular respiration, including glycolysis, results in the production of 36 molecules of ATP.
How much energy is produced through cellular respiration?
How efficient is the process of cellular respiration? The 36 ATP molecules the cell makes per glucose represent about 38 percent of the total energy of glucose. That might not seem like much, but it means that the cell is actually more efficient at using food than the engine of a typical automobile is at burning gasoline. What happens to the remaining 62 percent? It is released as heat
Compare Cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are almost opposite processes. Earlier in this chapter, the chemical energy in carbohydrates was compared to money in a savings account. Photosynthesis is the process that “deposits” energy. Cellular respiration is the process that “withdraws” energy. The equations for photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the reverse of each other.

Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere, and cellular respiration uses that oxygen to release energy from food. As the figure at right shows, the products of photosynthesis are similar to the reactants of cellular respiration. The products of cellular respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis. Cellular respiration takes place in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. Photosynthesis, however, occurs only in plants, algae, and some bacteria.