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27 Cards in this Set

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Dr. Griffith did important research in genetics
- worked with a
- vaccine- or substance made of weakened or dead microbes introduced into the body and allows the body to create anti bodies if it ever enters the body later
- Virulent microbes- micro germs that cause disease
- Dr. Griffith did some experiments with lab mice and proved bacteria went through a transformation
- Transformation- change in characteristics or traits
- Read pg 165- 166 on his experiment
virulent
micro germs able to cause desease
Vaccine
- or substance made of weakened or dead microbes introduced into the body and allows the body to create anti bodies if it ever enters the body later
Transformation
change in characteristics or traits
1944 Dr. Avery
proved that it was DNA that is genetic material
Dr. Hershey and Chase
- proved that it was DNA and not proteins
- They used bacterial phage- which is a virus that effects bacteria instead of people
- Called Te phage
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
Nucleotides
linked together like a chain
DNA
long thin molecules made of tiny units call nucleotides
3 parts of nucleotides
- Phosphate group
- 5 Carbón hurgar molecule
- Nitrogen base
deoxyribose
- 5 part sugar molecule
The sugar molecule and phosphate group Hill always be the same
- The N base may be different
1. Adenine
2. Guanine
- Purine double ring of C+N atoms
3. Thyimine
4. Cytosine
- Pyrmidines made of a single ring of C+N atoms
Chargaff did research on DNA
base pairing rules
- the amount of adenine always equals the amount of Thyimine
- The amount of guanine always equals the amount of Cytosine
- These are called base pairing rules or Chargaff’s rules
DNA molecule is a tightly coiled helix and is made of 2 chains of molecules
1953- Dr. Watson and Crick
- They developed the double halix model of DNA
- Looks like a twisted ladder
The Structure
A. adeyine (A.) can only join with thymine (T)
B. cytosine © can only bind with guanine (G)
C. The strictness of these base pairings result in 2 strands that are complimentary
D. Example:
T……A C……G A….....T
double helix
2 strands od nucleotides twisting around a central axis
complementary
the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on another
The Structure
A. adeyine (A.) can only join with thymine (T)
B. cytosine © can only bind with guanine (G)
C. The strictness of these base pairings result in 2 strands that are complimentary
D. Example:
T……A C……G A….....T
Replication
A. Must be unwound
B. Helicase- enzyme that unzip or breaks the weak hydrogen bonds between the 2 strands of nucleotides
C. Replication Fork- point where the double helix is separated
D. DNA Polymerases- enzymes that move up each strand of nucleotides and adds the nucleotide that’s missing using the base pairing rules/ and corrects error by back tracking to correct mistakes
Gene-
Gene-
Introns
- series of nucleotides that have no coding information
- called intervening sequences
Exons
- nucleotide parts that code information to make amino acids
- they are expressed or shown
Multi gene families
- genes that exist in multiple copies, clusters of almost identical sequences
- The family may contain up to several hundred versions of the one gene
Transposon
- genes that can move from one chromosome location to another
- this action of moving can cause mutation
- has an enormous impact on evolution
helicases
open up the doble helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complimentary bases
replication fork
piont where double helix seperates
DNA polymerases
move along each of the DNA strands adding nucleotides to the exposed bases according to the base pairing rules