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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Allopatric Speciation
The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population's becoming isolated by a geographical barrier
Natural Selection
Differential success in reproduction by different phenotypes resulting from interations w/the environment
Speciation
Process in which 2 populations achieve reproductive isolation
Species
All of the organisms that are potentially capable of interbreeding under normal conditions
Autosome
Normal chromosomes; not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism
Transcription
1st stage of gene expression in which the RNA polymerase enzymes synthesizes an mRNA molecules whose sequence is complementary to DNA
Translation
Synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule
Dyad Chromosome
2 Chromatids; before separation
Monad Chromosome
1 Chromatid; after separation
Scientific Theory
Observation
Hypothesis
Evidence
Experimentation
Verification
Predictive Power
Applications
Theory of Natural Selection
Genetic variations
Overproduction of offspring
Struggle for existence
Differential survival & reproduction
Adaptive Trait
Trait that enhances the reproductive success of an individual under certain environmental conditions
5-Kingdom Classification
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
Protista
Monera
Classification System
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Meiosis 1
DNA replication
Sister chromatids do NOT separate
Different maternal/paternal distribution
Meiosis 2
NO DNA replication
Separate from sister chromatids
Form haploid gametes
Spontaneous Mutation
Replication errors
Natural chemical events
:low rate
Induced Mutation
Chemicals
Radiation
:high rate
Gene Map
How many genes
DNA sequence
Protein sequence
Protein structure
Protein function
Treatment/Prevention
Translation
mRNA
tRNA
Ribosomes
Transcription
DNA unwinds
AU/GC pairing
RNA copied: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
Ribosome: large sub-unit
binds tRNA
Ribosome: small sub-unit
binds mRNA
Transcription
DNA --> RNA
Translation
RNA --> Proteins
Central Dogma
DNA --> RNA --> Proteins
Function of mRNA
Contains the information which allows the ribsome to connect amino acids in a precise order (protein formation).
Somatic
Diploid
Mitosis
2n --> 2n
Gametic
Haploid
Meiosis
2n --> n
Allele
Alternate form of a gene
Keno
Common form binds adenine: spontaneous mutation
Enol
Rare form binds guanosine: spontaneous mutation
Base Analogs
Substitution of a normal base
Alkalyting Agents
Chemical modification of a base --> incorrect pairing
Codon
Three letter codes that specifies the amino acid of a protein
Function of rRNA
Part of the stucture of the protein building complex inside a cell (ribosome).
Codon
Basic unit of the genetic code
Code for the same amino acid as another codon does
Consists of 3 nucleotides
Who discoverd the double helix structure of DNA?
Watson & Crick
Where does protein synthesis occur?
In the cytoplasm