Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structure of chromosomes
made of DNA that is a long thin material that contains information needed to direct cell's activities
a little small part or section of the DNA that transmitts information from parent to offspring
A rod shaped structure that ciols up before cell division
Created when a chromosome copies itself, the coppies are called ex.
protien disc which the 2 chromatids are attached to
Homologous chromosome
the 2 copies of each chromosome one coming from each parent, similar in shape and size but not in genetic information
Chromosomes in humans
humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell of our bodie, except the hapliod # which is half the dipliod #
the number of chromosomes when a cell contains 2 homologies of each chromosome
sex cell, the male is called sperm and the female is called the egg, they are hapliod or cells that contain 1 molecule of each our hapliod number is half our diplod
cell that contains only one homologue of each chromosome
the one celled organism created when the sperm and the egg join- it will become an embryo
when you are missing and entire embryo, the cell won’t develop any further
when a cell has an extra chromosome It can cause down syndrome- if you have an extra copy of 21 chromosome it will duplicate itself over and over/ mild to serious retardation
series of pictures of chromosomes/ helps scientists to look for defects in the chromosomes
a mistake in chromosome separation/. Results when 1 new cell gets both chromosomes and the other doesn’t get any
Parentsl testing
- chromosome defects can be diagnosed early in pregnancy
uses a needle and syringe removes amniotic fluid around the embryo and do this 14th and 16th weeks of pregnancy
chrionic villi sampling
Phisisian analizes a karotype made using cell grom from a sample of chronic villi
change in genetic material
a fragment of a chromosome breaks off
the fragment that broke attaches to a homologous chromosome and now it has 2 sets of genes
the fragment that broke off reattaches to the chromosome in the opposite position
fragment breaks off and can join a non homologous chromosome
Chromosomes determine sex
22 pairs of chromosome that are basically the same in male and female
sex chromosomes
- 23 pair of chromosome/ carry genes that determine the individuals sex
girl/ boy
boy- xy
Binary fission
simple cell fission that happens in a one cell organism/ no sex production/ produses identical offspring
cell cycle
repeating process that involves a cell being created and grows and matures and divides
G1 phase
S phase
G2 phase
M phase
C phase
-growth phase
-DNA is coppied
-cell is preparing for division of the nucleus
-mitosis- nucleus divides
-cytoplasm- splits in half- cytokinesious
process which the nucleus of an atom splits into 2 nuclei
process which the cytoplasm divides
a normal no dividing cell cell does a great deal of growing
spindle fiber
made of microtubules and ae long hollow tubes of protien
disk of protien on a chromosome's centrmere in which microtubuals attach during miosis and miitosis
form of cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes 2 succesful divisions creating 4 nuclei each with a chromosome number that has been reduced by half
hapliod cells that later lead to the production og gametes
crossing- over
the exachange of recipocal segments of DNA by chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis
skipping replication
because there are only 3 replication of DNA but 2 divisions, meiosis halves the number of chromosomes
reduction division
each cell produced contains half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Meoisis I is an example
genetic recombination
the formation of a new combination of genes. Crossing over is an effective way to do this