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40 Cards in this Set

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Structure of chromosomes
made of DNA that is a long thin material that contains information needed to direct cell's activities
Gene
a little small part or section of the DNA that transmitts information from parent to offspring
Chromosome
A rod shaped structure that ciols up before cell division
Chromatids
Created when a chromosome copies itself, the coppies are called ex.
centromere
protien disc which the 2 chromatids are attached to
Homologous chromosome
the 2 copies of each chromosome one coming from each parent, similar in shape and size but not in genetic information
Chromosomes in humans
humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell of our bodie, except the hapliod # which is half the dipliod #
dipliod
the number of chromosomes when a cell contains 2 homologies of each chromosome
Gemetes
sex cell, the male is called sperm and the female is called the egg, they are hapliod or cells that contain 1 molecule of each our hapliod number is half our diplod
Hapliod
cell that contains only one homologue of each chromosome
Zygote
the one celled organism created when the sperm and the egg join- it will become an embryo
minosomy
when you are missing and entire embryo, the cell won’t develop any further
trisomy
when a cell has an extra chromosome It can cause down syndrome- if you have an extra copy of 21 chromosome it will duplicate itself over and over/ mild to serious retardation
karyotype
series of pictures of chromosomes/ helps scientists to look for defects in the chromosomes
nondisjunction
a mistake in chromosome separation/. Results when 1 new cell gets both chromosomes and the other doesn’t get any
Parentsl testing
- chromosome defects can be diagnosed early in pregnancy
amniocentesis
uses a needle and syringe removes amniotic fluid around the embryo and do this 14th and 16th weeks of pregnancy
chrionic villi sampling
Phisisian analizes a karotype made using cell grom from a sample of chronic villi
mutation
change in genetic material
delection
a fragment of a chromosome breaks off
duplication
the fragment that broke attaches to a homologous chromosome and now it has 2 sets of genes
inversion
the fragment that broke off reattaches to the chromosome in the opposite position
translocation
fragment breaks off and can join a non homologous chromosome
Chromosomes determine sex
autosomes
22 pairs of chromosome that are basically the same in male and female
sex chromosomes
- 23 pair of chromosome/ carry genes that determine the individuals sex
girl/ boy
girl-xx
boy- xy
Binary fission
simple cell fission that happens in a one cell organism/ no sex production/ produses identical offspring
cell cycle
repeating process that involves a cell being created and grows and matures and divides
G1 phase
S phase
G2 phase
M phase
C phase
-growth phase
-DNA is coppied
-cell is preparing for division of the nucleus
-mitosis- nucleus divides
-cytoplasm- splits in half- cytokinesious
Mitosis
process which the nucleus of an atom splits into 2 nuclei
cytokinesis
process which the cytoplasm divides
interphase
a normal no dividing cell cell does a great deal of growing
spindle fiber
made of microtubules and ae long hollow tubes of protien
kinetochore
disk of protien on a chromosome's centrmere in which microtubuals attach during miosis and miitosis
meiosis
form of cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes 2 succesful divisions creating 4 nuclei each with a chromosome number that has been reduced by half
spores
hapliod cells that later lead to the production og gametes
crossing- over
the exachange of recipocal segments of DNA by chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis
skipping replication
because there are only 3 replication of DNA but 2 divisions, meiosis halves the number of chromosomes
reduction division
each cell produced contains half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Meoisis I is an example
genetic recombination
the formation of a new combination of genes. Crossing over is an effective way to do this