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62 Cards in this Set

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Organelles
Membrane-enclosed structures within eukaryotic cells
Light Microscope
Light passes through the specimen through glass which magnifies it
Electron Microscope
Electrons are beamed through the specimen
Scanning Electron Microscope
useful for detailed study of topography of a specimen
Transmission Electron Microscope
Used to study internal structure of cells by aiming an electron beam through a thin layer of specimen after being stained with heavy metals
Cell Fractionation
Takes cells apart and separates major organelles from one another.The higher the speed, the smaller the pellets that appear on the bottom.
Cytosol
Jellylike substance within cells
Nucleoid
Region with concentrated DNA in prokaryotic cells
Cytoplasm
Interior of the cell, but only between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
Plasma Membrane
A selective barrier that allows the passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wasters to service the cell. It has a large SA to V ratio.
Nucleus
Contains most of the genes of the cell
Nuclear Envelope
Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm.
Nuclear Lamina
A net-like array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by supporting the nuclear envelope on the inside.
Chromosomes
Units of DNA, carrying genetic information
Chromatin
A complex of DNA and proteins making the chromosomes
Nucleolus
A dense region of the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made.
Ribosomes
Ribosomal RNA and protein that carry out protein synthesis
Endomembrane System
The nuclear envelope, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes,vesicles, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
Vesicles
Sacs made of membrane that interrelate the various organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Accounts for most of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells. Has two parts: Smooth and Rough.
Smooth ER
Lacks ribosomes on its outer surface. Produces lipids, metabolizes carbohydrates, detoxifies drugs/poisons, and stores calcium ions.
Rough ER
Covered in ribosomes. Produces proteins.
Glycoproteins
Primarily secretory proteins.
Transport Vesicles
Vesicles that move from one part of the cell to another transporting material.
Golgi apparatus
Warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping, and some manufacturing. Products of the ER are modified. Has two sides, cis (near ER) and trans (away from ER)
Lysosomes
Sac of hydrolytic enzymes hat digest macromolecules.
Phagocytosis
Cells eat by engulfing food particles.
Vacuoles
Vesicles from the ER and Golgi apparatus.
Cristae
Infolding of the mitochondria
Mitochondrial Matrix
enclosed by the inner membrane.
Thylakoids
Interconnected sacs within the chloroplast.
Granum
Each stack in the thylakoids
Stroma
Fluid outside the thylakoids which contains the chloroplast DNA and ribosomes and enzymes.
Plastid
Family of plant related organelles. e.g. Chloroplast
Peroxisome
contains enzymes that remove H atoms from varous substrates and makes H2O2. They break fatty acids, detoxify alcohol. Has enzymes that convert H2O2 into water.
Cytoskeleton
Network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
Motor Proteins
Required to interact with the cytoskeleton for motility
Microtubules
Hollow rods approximately 25nm wide. Shape and support cell and provide tracks from motor proteins to move on. Also used to split cell during cell division.
Centrosome
Mictotubules grow out from here.
Centrioles
Within the centrosome. They replicate before the cell divides.
Flagella and Cilia
Flagella/um is a tail used for movement.
Cilia are hairlike structures that are used in movement.
Basal Body
Microtubules for flagellum and cilium are anchored here.
Dyneins
Large motor proteins that are responsible fro the bending movements of an organelle.
Microfilaments
Solid rods, about 7nm in diameter. a twisted double chain of actin subunits that support the cell's shape.
Cortex
The cytoplasmic layer of the cell that has a semisolid consistency from microfilaments.
Myosin
A protein allowing microfilaments to have a primary role in motility. Used by muscles. They microfilaments overlap.
Pseudopodia
These are "false feet" on cells.
Cytoplasmic Streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm within cells.
Intermediate Filaments
Have a 8-12nm diameter. They specialize for bearing tension. They are a permanent framework.
Cell Wall
Extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguishes them from animal cells.
Primary Cell Wall
A young plant cell first secretes a thing flexible cell wall.
Middle Lamella
A thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins. It glues adjacent cells together.
Secondary Cell Wall
Another layer added between the plasma membrane and the primary wall.
Extracellular Matrix
The region outside the cell. It consists of glycoproteins and carbohydrates
Collagen
A strong fiber outside cells.
Proteoglycans
A small core protein with many carbohydrates.
Fibrontectin
An ECM glycoprotein that binds to receptor proteins called integrins
Integrins
Receptor proteins built into the plasma membrane
Plasmodesmata
membrane-lined channels filled with cytoplasm. It joins the internal chemical environment of other cells, unifying it.
Tight Junctions
Plasma membranes of adjacent cells are very tight together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid. E.g. skin
Desmosomes
Rivets fastening cells together. They attach muscle cells to each other.
Gap Junctions
Cytoplasmic channels from once cell to another.