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76 Cards in this Set

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What is the major energy carrier for most metabolic activities in the cell?
ATP
ATP is made during what and used during what?
It is made during decomposition and used during biosynthesis.
What links catabolism to anabolism?
ATP.
Cellular respiration is a series of catabolic reactions that are catalyzed by what?
Enzymes that break down complex molecules to carbon dioxide and water and release energy.
What are the raw materials for cellular respiration?
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, but primarily glucose.
Cellular respiration provides not only ATP but also what?
Energy in the form of ATP and carbon skeletons for biosynthesis.
Cellular respiration can occur with or without the aid of what?
Oxygen.
For what type of respiration is oxygen the oxidizing agent that receives electrons from the decomposed substrates?
Aerobic Respiration.
What is the final hydrogen acceptor molecule?
Oxygen.
In what type of respiration will the substrate be only partly decomposed, releasing less energy, or a nitrogen or sulfur compound may substitute for oxygen?
Anaerobic Respiration.
What are the three main stages of the cellular respiration of glucose?
Glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport system.
What happens in glycolysis?
Glucose is split into two 3-carbon molecules(pyruvate), hydrogen, and a small amount of ATP.
What happens in the Krebs cycle?
The two pyruvates created in glycolysis are broken down into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and a small amount of ATP.
What happens to the hydrogen produced in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
It is picked up by NAD and carried to the electron transport system.
What does FAD do?
It carries Hydrogen.
What happens in the electron transport system?
Each hydrogen atom from the Krebs cycle is separated into an electron and a proton and transferred to oxygen, finally forming water.
What else is cellular respiration called and why?
Aerobic respiration, because oxygen needs to be present for it to occur.
What is the process of gas exchange between the environment, the body, and the cells called?
Respiration.
What is a series of chemical reactions by which a living cell breaks down molecules and obtains energy from them called?
Cellular respiration.
What happens when glucose enters a cell?
An enzyme quickly converts it to two molecules of pyruvate.
Where is glucose converted to two pyruvates?
In the cytoplasm.
In glycolysis what is NAD converted to?
NADH.
At the end of glycolysis, what dictates the fate of pyruvate?
The presence or absence of oxygen.
If little or no oxygen is available, what will animal cells convert NADH and pyruvate to?
NAD and lactate.
Why will NADH and pyruvate be converted to NAD and lactate if little or no oxygen is present in glycolysis?
So NAD will be available to carry more hydrogen, which is necessary for the cell to continue to obtain ATP from glycolysis.
What is glycolysis in animal cells with little or no oxygen called?
Lactic acid fermentation.
If little or no oxygen is available in plants and bacteria, what will they convert NADH and pyruvate to?
Alcohol.
What is glycolysis in plant and bacteria cells with little or no oxygen available called?
Alcoholic fermentation.
In glycolysis, if sufficient oxygen is present in a cell, what will happen to pyruvate?
It will be transported into a mitochondrion.
During glycolysis in the mitochondiron what is pyruvate converted to?
Acetate.
During glycolysis after pyruvate is converted to acetate what happens to the acetate?
It is converted by coenzyme A into acetyl CoA.
During glycolysis, after pyruvate makes its way to become acetyl CoA what happens next?
Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle.
What "houses" the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system?
Mitochondria.
Why are mitochondria also called the powerhouse of the cell?
Because they are the sites where most ATP is synthesized.
Some cells have only how many mitochondria?
10 to 20.
How many mitochondria do muscle cells have?
Several thousand.
What directly affects the number of mitochondria present in a cell?
The cells functions and and energy requirements.
What does the electron transport system consist of?
A series of easily reduced and oxidizing enzymes and other proteins known as cytochromes.
What does the electron transport system separate hydrogen into?
Electrons and protons.
In the electron transport system the cytochromes transfer the electrons step by step through the system and eventually combines the electrons and protons with oxygen, forming what?
Water.
How many molecules of ATP does each molecule of NADH generate?
Three ATP molecules.
How many molecules of ATP does each molecule of FADH generate?
Two ATP molecules.
What is the net gain of ATP by glycolysis?
Two ATP molecules.
Whatis the net gain of ATP by the Krebs Cycle?
Two ATP molecules.
What is the net gain of ATP by the electron transport system?
34 ATP molecules.
What is the net production of ATP by anaerobic respiration?
2 ATP molecules.
What is the net production of ATP by aerobic respiration?
38 ATP molecules.
What must be present to accept the electrons and protons of hydrogen at the end of the electron transport system?
Oxygen.
Humans and other animals have evolved specialized organs and systems, such as lungs and circulation, that do what?
They ensure efficiency of energy release from food by delivering oxygen to the last step in the electron transport system.
What serve as the raw materials for cellular respiration?
The products of photosynthesis.
What serve as the raw materials for photosynthesis?
The products of cellular respiration.
What is involved in the liberation of energy from fats and proteins?
The Krebs cycle.
What do fatty acids break down to in mitochondria?
Acetyl CoA.
After fatty acids break down to Acetyl CoA what happens to it next?
It enters the Krebs cycle.
What has to present in order to obtain energy from fats?
Oxygen.
What are proteins broken down into?
Amino acids.
After proteins are broken into amino acids what are they then broken down into?
Acetate or ketoglutarate.
After acetate or ketoglutarate are formed from proteins what happens next?
They enter the Krebs cycle.
What is the tissue that is produced by humans and other hairless mammals plus many hibernating animals called?
Brown-fat.
Brown fat contains more what than any other animal?
Mitochondria.
What is brown fat designed for?
Rapid heat production.
What does respiration of stored fat in brown-fat cells do?
It releases most of the energy as heat and produces little ATP.
When energy demand is high, what is used to make ATP?
Blood glucose.
When energy demand is low, what is blood glucose stored as?
Glycogen and fat.
What process is glucose used during?
Respiration and fermentation.
Which molecule is not present at the beginning of the Krebs cycle?
Glucose.
Lactate formation in muscles causes pain. This lactate is formed from what?
Pyruvate in the absence of oxygen.
An athlete's muscle pain disappears when lactate has diffused into the blood and is converted to glucose in what?
Liver cells.
How are photosynthesis, fermentation, and cellular respiration similar?
They employ electron carrier molecules and rebuild ATP.
In general, how are plants and animals are similar?
They both use atmospheric oxygen to release the chemical bond energy of carbohydrates.
Name the molecules that need to be present at the beginning of glycolysis.
Glucose, ADP, and NAD.
What are the products of glycolysis?
Four ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.
Name four molecules that need to be present at the beginning of the Krebs cycle.
Oxygen, 2 pyruvates, NAD, and FAD.
What are the end products of the Krebs cycle?
Carbon Dioxide, NADH, FADH, and 2 ATP.
Name the three molecules that need to be present at the beginning of the electron transport system.
Oxygen, FADH, and NADH.
What are the end products of the electron transport system?
Water, FAD, NAD, and 34 ATP.