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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
smallest unit of life
Robert Hooke
discovered the cell in 1665 by observing cork. the cork reminded him of monestary cells, hence the small life forms' names
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
Worked in a lab together. Schleiden: all plants have cells
Schwann: all animals have cells
Rudolf Virchow
All cells come from other cells
size of plant/animal cells
10-15 um
size of bacteria cells
0.2 um at most
cubodial cell
volume increases with the cube of the side length. Surface area increases with the square of its side length. (In other words volume increases faster than surface area.

at some point surface area is too small to fit volume
cell shape
various cells have various shapes. white blood cells change shape to get through blood vessels
internal structures of cells
cell membrane
selectively permiable

phospholipid bilayer

peripheral proteins: interior and exterior; links lipids to the membrane or other proteins in the lipid bilayer

integral proteins: embedded in the bilayer; often carbs attached

fluid mosaic model: lipid bilayer behaves more like a fluid.
contains cytosal and various organelles.
gelatin like substance in the cytoplasm
have their own DNA
cristae is the inner membrane
transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP

proteins produced
endoplasmic reticulum
Membranous tunnels and sacs.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum: in cells that make a lot of protein.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: synthesis of steroids in gland cells
Golgi apparatus
processing, packaging, and secreting organelle
enclose hydrolytic enzymes within a single membrane

digest toxins, old organelles, etc

destroyes tissues in fingers in embryo development
protein strangs connected through the cell

mircofilaments: made of actin protein strands

microtubles: spindle fibers that come together when the cell divides
hair like organelles

propel and move the cell.

move things over the cell
nucelus matrix: protein skeleton

nuclear envelope: double membrane

chromatin: fine strands that are DNA/protein inside the nucleus

chromosomes: formed from chormatin when cell is about to divide

nuclear pores: holes in the envelope that RNA can travel through

nucleolus: spherical area
cell wall
lies on outside of the membrane


secondary (tough and woody)
store enzymes and metabolic waste
surrounded by two membranes and contain DNA

store starch and fat

absorb light (chloroplasts)
cellular organization
cells-tissues-organs-organ systems
evolution of cellular organisms
1.simple prokaryotes
2.adapted to eukaryotic
a. eventually lived in groups: colonial organizations
3.Evolved into plants, animals, and bacteria.