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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
______is the ability to do work.
ENERGY
Energy out reactions
excergoinic
energy in reactions
endergonic
excergonic reactions occur when the ________have more energy than the _______
reactants products
endergonic reactions occur when the ______ have more energy than the ________
products reactants
excergonic reactions _______ energy
release
endergonic reactions _______ energy
release
excergonic reactions will continue by themselves, but need ______ ______ to get them started.
kinetic energy
_________ reactions are an input of energy
endergonic
cells use _____ to regulate chemical reactions
enzymes
catalysts speed up reactions by reducing _________ energy
activation
catalysts are not ________ in reactions.
consumed
________ are biological catalysts
enzymes
enzymes, unlike catalysts are usually very ________.
specific
enzyme activity is ________.
regulated
enzymes are ________ with a complex 3-dimensional shapes, including an ________(2 wrds) where __________ can enter
proteins
active site
substrates
what is a BIOLOGICAL CATALYST, what is the role of an ACTIVE SITE?
Makes reactions go faster, that breaks down a single substrate or joins together two or more. This all occurs at the ACTIVE SITE.
what is CATABOLISM?
uses one substrate in digestion, excergonic reaction
what is ANABOLIC?
more than one substrate, photosynthesis, endergonic reactions.
what is the lock and key model of enzyme action.
substrates (lock) are attracted o enzymes(key) that have the same shape.
what is the induced fit model of enzyme action?
where the enzyme changes shape slightly to fit inside the substrate.
what are two factors that could cause enzyme denaturation?
too much heat, extrem basic or acidic
ehat is a general role of cofactors?
to control or help the enzyme
enzymes are ________ with a complex 3-dimensional shapes, including an ________(2 wrds) where __________ can enter
proteins
active site
substrates
what is a BIOLOGICAL CATALYST, what is the role of an ACTIVE SITE?
Makes reactions go faster, that breaks down a single substrate or joins together two or more. This all occurs at the ACTIVE SITE.
what is CATABOLISM?
uses one substrate in digestion, excergonic reaction
what is ANABOLIC?
more than one substrate, photosynthesis, endergonic reactions.
what is the lock and key model of enzyme action.
substrates (lock) are attracted o enzymes(key) that have the same shape.
what is the induced fit model of enzyme action?
where the enzyme changes shape slightly to fit inside the substrate.
what are two factors that could cause enzyme denaturation?
too much heat, extrem basic or acidic
ehat is a general role of cofactors?
to control or help the enzyme
list four heavy metals that are toxic to humans
cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic
why are these heavy metals toxic?
they bond permanatly to the active sitr and destroy their catalytic properties.
name a common poison that is an enzyme inhibitor.
nerve gas, insecticide, pestacide.
what is the difference between competitive and non competitive inhibition
COMPETITIVE: competes for the active site.

NON COMPETITIVE: slows down the reaction.
what is an allosteric inhibitor
an inhibitor that blocks the active site all together
what are the two types of enzymes that can be produced by man?
extracellular enxymes and intracellular enzymes
what is one benefit of using a cell-free enzyme to produce a high-value end-product?
the enzyme may be washed away after use.