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304 Cards in this Set

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chitin
non living non cellular hard part that makes up the cuticle, contains long chains of amino acids
cuticle can or cannot grow??
cannot
molting is also known as
ecdysis
ecdysis
organisms grows new integument below the old and sheds the old.
epidermis
outer layer formed from gastrula
dermis
lower layer formed from mesoderm
epidermis is composed of ________ tissue
epithelial
epidermis is divided into two layers:
stratum corneum and stratum basale
stratum corneum is _______ and stratum basale is _______.
dead; living
which has blood supply? epidermis or dermis??
dermis
which portion gets its nourishment from the dermis??
stratum basale
keratin
dead cells of the epidermis
keratin is composed of ______ and is ______.
tough coiled protein; insoluble
Dermis is composed of mostly ______, ________ _______ tissue.
irregular, dense connective tissue.
irregular
running in different directions
dermis is made up of one protein
collogen
melanin
pigment that causes color
chromatophores
cells in the dermis containg the pigment in non mammal vertebrates
lizards, frogs, can change color
4 functions of the skeletal system
1) gives form
2) protects organs
3) an attachment point for muscles
4) production of blood cells
periosteum
connective tissue layer that surrounds the bone
periosteum makes the bones ______.
thicker.
metaphysis
cartiloagenous portion at each end
metaphysis makes the bones _____.
longer.
epiphysis
end of bone
diaphysis
middle shaft between epiphysis
epiphyseal line
line of growth stop between epiphysis and diaphysis
2 types of bone
1) spongy bone
2) compact bone
spongy bone is also known as
cancellous bone
spongy bone is found at the ______ and is _____, ______, ______, and ________.
end; porous, flaky, weaker, and thin.
compact bone is the ________ portion and is _____ and ______.
diaphysis. hard and dense
osteocytes
cells of bones
chondrocytes
cells of cartilage
haversion canal
center of bone how they grow
what makes bones harder?
calcium phosphate Ca(HPO3)2
3 types of skeleton
1) hydrostatic
2) exoskeleton
3) endoskeleton
hydrostatic skeleton
water based pressure
exoskeleton
insects/chitin
endoskelton
cartilage, bone-storage for calcium phosphate
the hollow space in the bone is called the _________.
marrow cavity
the marrow cavity is yellow/white because it is ____.
fat
3 types of joints
1) fibrous
2)cartilagenous
3) synovial
fibrous joints are found in the ____. they allow ______ movement.
skull; no.
cartilagenous are found between _____. they allow ____ movement.
vertebraes. slight.
synovial is found between _____. they all ____ movement.
free
hinge and ball and socket are examples of what types of joints?
synovial
ligaments
connect bones to each other
tendons
connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle
axial skeleton consists of the...
1) skull
2) vertebral column
3) ribs
4) sternum
appendicular skeltion consists of the...
bones of the limbs making up the pectoral girdle
Backbone consists of
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacrum and coccyx.
caudal
another name for tail
two proteins within muscles
1)actin
2) myosin
actin and myosin are powered by ___.
ATP.
mitosis
plant cells
Muscles are composed of thousands of individual cells called _____.
fibers
fascicles
bundles of fibers bound together by connective tissue.
fascicles are bundles of ______ bound together by ______ tissue.
fibers; connective
sarcolemma
plasma membrane of the muscle fibers
sarcoplasm
cytoplasm of muscle cells
There are _____ nuclei present in the sarcoplasm
many
t-tubles
invard extensions of the sarcolemma
actin are ____, _____ bands.
skinny light
myosin are ____, _____ bands.
dense dark
myofilaments are composed of _____ and _____.
actin and myosin
relationship of bundles
myofilaments make myofibrils make fibers make fascicles make muscle.
actin and myosin give the muscle _____ appearance.
striated.
sarcomere
individual contractal unit
z-line
where actin and myosin zig zag along.
myosin is on the _____ actin is on the _____.
inside; outside
h-zone
light area made up exlusively of myosin
i bands
actin filaments at the ends
a band
wide dark region of overlapping myosin and actin
sliding filament theory
how the actin and myosin work with cross bridges
there are ____ actin per myosin
6
____ grabs the ____ and pull together
myosin; actin
size of ____ band does not change
a
nerve impulse sent to the muscle this is an example of _____.
an electrical stimuli
when the nerve impulse is sent, _____ is realesed
acetylcholin
______ stimulates the muscle
acetylcholin
acetylcholine ______ the membrane, allowing ______ to move inside the cell
depolarizes; Na+ ions
cell membranes are ____ on outside and ____ on inside
positive; negative
depolarization _____ the electrical charge.
slows
_____ communicate with the sarcoplasmic reticulum
t-tubles
depolarization stimulates the release of _____ from reserves in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
calcium
____ changes the shape of troponin
Calcium
troponin
protein that normally covers active site on actin
changing the shape of troponin allows....
the cross bridges of myosin to attach to the active sites of actin
motor unit
composed of a motor neuron and muscle fibers
during a muscle contraction, what is released?
ADP and P
rigormortis is when there is not enough _____ to release myosin
ATP
____ releases the myosin
ATP
refractory period
short period of resetting within the muscle fibers-resting
during the refractory period, the sacrolemma has to be _____.
repolarized
muscles act on the _________ principle.
all or nothing
all muscles in the cell are ____ slightly contracted
always
muscle tone
slight stae of contraction slightly throughout the body
________ causes you to stand up.
muscle tone
muscle tetnus
hard sustaned contraction. sarcomere cannot stay contracted
creatine phosphate
energy storage molecule
creatine phosphate + ____ = ____ + creatine
ADP, ATP
fatigue is a result from a _____ in ATP and an accumulation of _____.
depletion, lactate
simple organisms do not have _______ systems. they are called _________.
digestive; autotrophs
autotrophs get their energy from the ____.
sun.
heterotrophs
rely on food
herbivores
eat plants
omnivores
eat anything
saprophytic
eat rotting stuff
digestion is the _____ and _____ breakdown of food particles
mechanical; chemical
digestive system develops from the _____ of teh _____.
Archenteron; gastrula
lumen
opening inside of the gut
mucosa
tissue layer in contact wiht hte luman
mucosa is complosed of __________ derived from the ________.
simple columnar epithelial; endoderm
submucosa
connective tissue contains blood vessel, similar to dermis
muscularis
double layer of smooth muscle
the inner muscularis shape is ________ and decreases _______.
circular; diameter
the outer muscularis shape is _________ and decresase _________.
longitudal; length
ingestion
eating
absorption
removal of useful products from lumen to blood
elimination
getting rid of indigestible products
lipase breaks down ______.
lipids
amylase breaks down ____.
carbs
nuclease breaks down _____.
RNA and DNA.
protease breaks down ________.
proteins.
homodont
same teeth
heterodont
different types of teeth
3 regions of the stomach
1) cardiac-top
2) fundus-body
3) pyloric-bottom
motility
the mixing and propulsive movements of the digestive tract
peristalis
waves of muscular contration that push the food in one direction
visceral peritoneum
below the diaphragm, outer connective tissue coat of the digestive tract
parietal peritoneum
connected to the visceral at the abdomen pectoral region
teh _______ and _________ enclose part of the ________ at the _________.
visceral; parietal; coelom; peritoneal
bolus
the lump that is created from chewing food
rugae
folds of stomach
pepsin
the main digestive enzyme of the stomach
3 parts of the small intestine
1)duodenum 2)jejunum 3) ileum
sphincter muscle
muscles at each end of the stomach that pushes food
top sphincter muscle
cardiac sphincter
bottom sphincter muscle
pyloric sphincter
goblet cells are found within the _____.
mucosa
goblet cells produce mucus so that:
it can coat the stomach lining so that it does not create an ulcer
gastric juice
fluid of the stomach added to food
gastric juic is produced by the _________ glands fo the stomach.
tubular
holes in the rugae are _____ glands.
gastric
chief cells produce ________
pepsinogen.
______ cells produce pepsinogen.
chief
pepsinogen
inactive form of an enzyme, peptin
parietal cells produce _______.
HCL
______ and _______ react with each other to produce pepsin
HCL and pepsinogen
stomach is very acidic environment--ph of ____.
1.6-2.4
gastrin
hormone released by the mucosa in response to stretching.
gastrin tells teh mucosa to produce more ________.
gastric juices.
gastric juice
HCL and Pepsinogen
chyme
name for food leaving the stomach through the pyloric sphincter
the smallest part of the small intestine is
duodenum
______ increases the surface area of for increased absorption.
villi
duodeunum contains the _____ and ______ duct.
bile; pancrease
bile duct
secretes bile
bile is made in ________ and stored in _______.
liver; gallbladder
pancreas produces and releases ______.
enzymes.
tripsinogen
inactive form of protease
HCO3 purpose in the duodenum??
buffers the acidity of the stomach acids
2 hormones from small intestine
1) secretin
2) cholecystokinin
secretin
goes to teh pancreas, stimulates release of HCO3 and making of bile
cholecystokinin
stimulates the release of digestive enzymes from pancreas adn cause the gallbladder to contract and release bile
enterokinase
enzyme that has catalyzes tripsionogen to make trypsin.
aminopeptidases
attack polypetides adn break them down into amino acids.
brush border of the mucosa contain _____.
microvilli
microvilli consists of ______,________, and ______.
sucrase, maltase and lactase.
sucrase, maltase and lactase live less than ____ days in the mucosa.
2
______ percent of digestion occurs in the duodenum
90
________ occurs mostly in small intestine
absorption
the wall of the villi is a sinlge layer of _________ cells.
epithelial
lacteal is found within the ______. and is composed of _______ and _______.
vill; small capillaries and a central lymph vessel
_______ and ______ must be absorbed by active transport
glucose; amino acids
glucose and amino acids are transported to the ________ by the __________.
liver; hepatic portal vein
chylomicrons
are large lipoprotein particles that are created by the absorptive cells of the small intestine. Chylomicrons transport exogenous lipids to liver, adipose, cardiac and skeletal tissue where they are broken down by lipoprotein lipase.
lacteal
is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.
____ is a fat emulsifier
bile
emulsifier
helps mix liquid in liquid
pinocytosis
("cell-drinking")of excess fluids
chylomicrons take excess to the _____.
left subclavian of the heart
ileocecal valve
sphincter muscle betwen the small and large intestine
large intestine is composed of
1) ascending intestine
2) transverse
3) descending
4) rectum
5) anus
______ digestion/absorption takes place in large intestine
NO
function of the large intestine
elimination of waste materials
egestion
opposite of ingestion
feces is composed of what percentages?
75% water, 25% solid
what percentage of the solid part of feces is bacteria??
30
constipation
large intestine removes more water than it normally would
diarrhea
wrong E. coli baceteria
things absorbed with the water in teh large intestine
vitamin K
vitamin B
vitamiin k is made by
e. coli
largest gladn in the body
liver
______ stores glycogen, copper and iron.
liver
liver is the site of ______.
deamination
ilocecal valve
between small intestine and large intestine
metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions
anabolism
building up
catabolism
breaking down
basal metabolic rate
is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment
essential nutrients are nutrients that _______ be made by the body
CANNOT
nonessential nutrients are nutrients that ________ be made by teh body.
can
fiber
complex misxtuer of cellulose and indigestivbel carbohydrates
homeostasis
maintaining or a relative constant internal fluid environment.
extracellular is ______ of the cell.
outside
intracellular is ______ of the cell.
inside
extracellular has
a third of sodium, chloride, bicarbonate and calcium
intracellular has
2/3 potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate and proteins
2 types of circulatory system
1) open
2) closed
open contains fluid in tubes called
hemolymph.
grasshopper
closed circulatory system
enclosed wihtin a system of tubes and pumping structures
humans
blood transports _______,_______, and ______.
gases, food molecules, and waste
blood is composed of _____.
plasma
plasma consists of _______, _______, ________./
90% water, 2%dissoved materials, 8% proteins
plasma proteins are what color?
yellow
3 types of plasma proteins
1) albumins
2) globulins
3) fibrinogen
3 systems associated with homeostasis
1) circulatory
2) respiration
3) excretory
colloid
solid suspended in liquid
hematopoietic tissue produce ______.
plasma proteins
________ is found in the red bone marrow.
hematopoietic tissue.
osmotic pressure is always a ______.
pull
erythrocytes
red blood cells
red blood cells are the _______ numerous
most
red blood cells are constantly ______ and being ______.
dying; replaced
stroma
plasma membrane around red blood cell.
hemoglobin carries _____ and _________.
oxygen and carbon dioxide.
anemia
not having enough hemoglobin
leokocytes
white blood cells
leukocytes are important in _______.
phagocytosis of bacteria invading bodies.
2 types of leukocytes
1)granulocytes
2)agranulocytes
3 types of granulocytes
1) neutrophils
2) eosinophils
3) basophils
neutrophils
most abundant.
eosinophils stain _____.
red, associated iwth allergies adn parasitic infections
basophils stain ___.
blue. associated with allergies
2 types of agranulocytes
1) monocytes
2) lymphocytes
monocytes
have large nucelei. macrophages.puss
lymphoctyes
smaller
antibodies
help body against invading antigen.
antigen
any substance that will stimulate antibody production (foreign substance)
leukemia
type of cancer associated with blood; red bone marrow is producing too many white blood cells which do not have the opportunity to mature and cannot fight normal infections
3 types of formed elements
1)erythrocytes
2)leukocytes
3)platelets
platelets also called
thromocytes
platelets are found in ______.
red bone marrow
megakaryocytes are ________
platelets are responsible for the initiation of blood clotting.
blood serum
clear yellowish west plasma that does not have fibrinogent
fibrin
long fibers that stick across a cut and prevent blood loss
prothrombin is a plasma protein manufactured in the ____.
liver
prothrombin reacts with _____ to produce.
calcium; thrombin.
fibrinogen + thrombin produce
fibrin
prothrombin needs what to produce??
vitamin K
how many compounds are involved in blood clotting
35
hemophilia
genetic disease where one fo the compounds is not being made
blood types
1) a
2) b
3) ab
4)o
blood type is determined by the ________ that is on the ____ of ___ blood cells
proteins;stroma;red
agglutination
sticking together of red blood cells due to antigen/antibody reaction
cross matching
mixing blood outside of the body to see if there is a reaction
Rh blood
Rhesus blood group system. different types of blood, a+, a- etc.
RH blood, any proteins
positive
RH blood, no proteins
negative
problem with Rh during birth
bleeding occurs when placenta rips from teh wall fo the uters. mother may make anti Rh and destroy proteins. concern is that second baby and destroy its red blood cells.
erythroblastosis fetalis
"blue baby". if not born dead, needs 100% blood transfusion
average of _____ liters of blood in the human body
5
3 circuits
1) systemic
2) pulmonary
3) coronary
systemic
supplies oxygen to the entire body
pulmonary
picks up oxygen from heart to lungs
coronary
system of blood vessels within the heart
chordae tendineae
"heart strins" that attach the vavles to hte papillary muscles that project from the walls of the ventricles.
largest artery
aorta
largest vein
superior vena cava
valves are flaps of _______
regular dense connective tissue.
periocardium is a _____ layered sac.
triple.
periocardium
surrounds the heart allowing it to beat without friction
sinoatrial node
mass of tissue where every heart begins to beat.
sinoatrial node is located _______.
in hte posterior wall of the right atrium near the opening of the super vena cava.
Purkinje fibers
cause the contraction of the ventricles to starta at the bottom of the heart-push blood up and out.
sounds of heart
lub-1st sound - closing of tricuspid and mitral valves

dub-2nd sount - closing of pulmonary and aortic valves
systole
contraction
diastole
relaxation
longer time between beats, ___ diastolic pressure.
lower
cardiac output
amount of blood being pumped out of left ventricle per minute
coronary circuit
takes blood to heart muscle
systemic circuit
artieris, veins, capillaries
arteries
thick contract, alot of muscle
veins
thin, not much muscle
capillaries are found _______ in the body
everywhere
endothelium allows for ______
diffusion.
embolus
something in the blood that should not be there
pulmonary embolism
embolus lodged in lung
capillary bed
loses soem tissue fluid which builds up all over body
lymphatic system
responsible for pickign up excess fluid from capillary beds
4 major functions of the lymphatic system
1) drain excess fluid
2) clean the lymph
3) absorb fats in villi
4) maturation and modification lymphocytes
lyphocytes are produced in the _______.
red bone marrow
3 categories of lymphoctyes
1) t-cells
2) b cells
3) nk cells
t cells mature in _____ gland
thymus
NK cells have _____ protein.
no
APC
antigen producing cells
T cells
are the front line defense for becoming immune to an invader.
______ do not produce antibodies
T cells
atrioventricular
lub sound (contract)
aortic/pulmonary
dub ( relaxed)
helper Tcells
not involved, only relay messages
antibodies are _______.
proteins
systolic and diastolic are highest and lowest pressures in teh ________.
artery
subclavian
2 of the veins in teh circulatory system that run into the vena cava