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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organic
molecules that consist primarily of hydrogen and carbon atoms
carbons improtance
versatile bonding behavior, can form covalent bonds with 4 other atoms
hydroxyl
polar, in amino acids sugars and alchohols
methyl
nonpolar in fatty acids and some amino acids
carbonyl
polar and reactive in amino acids sugars and nucleotides
carboxyl
acidic found in amino acids fatty acids and carbohydrates
amine
basic found in amino acids som nucleotide bases
phosphate
high energy polar found in nucleotides dna and rna many proteins and phospholipids
sulfhydryl
forms disulfide bridges found in cysteine (an amino acid)
functional group
a cluster of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon atom of an organic molecule
condensation
2 molecules covalently bond into a largerone
cleavage
a molecule splits into two smaller ones. example is hydrolysis
functional group transfer
a functional group is transferred from one molecule to another
electron transfer
electrons are transferred from one molecule to another
rearrangement
juggling of covalent bonds converts one organic compound into another
monoccharides
have 5 carbon atoms are part of DNA & RNA
glucose
has 6 carbons and is part of DNA & RNA
what do cells use glucose for?
an energy source or as a structural material also as a precursor or parent molecule
fats
lipids with 1 2 or 3 fatty acids that dangle like tails from a small alcohol called glycerol
triglycerides
fats with three fatty acid tails linked to the glycerol
phospholipida
polar head with a phosphate in it and 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails the most abundant lipids in cell membranes
all hydrophilic tails have what in comon?
they are all sandwhiched between the heads.
waxws
are complex varying mixtures of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long chain alcohols or carbon rings
steroids
lipids with a ridgid back bone of four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails they differ in the type number and position of functional groups
what contains steroids?
eukaryotic cell membranes
phospholipida
polar head with a phosphate in it and 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails the most abundant lipids in cell membranes
all hydrophilic tails have what in comon?
they are all sandwhiched between the heads.
waxws
are complex varying mixtures of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long chain alcohols or carbon rings
steroids
lipids with a ridgid back bone of four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails they differ in the type number and position of functional groups
what contains steroids?
eukaryotic cell membranes
phospholipida
polar head with a phosphate in it and 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails the most abundant lipids in cell membranes
all hydrophilic tails have what in comon?
they are all sandwhiched between the heads.
waxws
are complex varying mixtures of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long chain alcohols or carbon rings
steroids
lipids with a ridgid back bone of four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails they differ in the type number and position of functional groups
what contains steroids?
eukaryotic cell membranes
what is the most comon steroid in animal tissues?
cholesterol
cholesterol
is remodeled into many molecules such as bile salts and vitamin D
what is derived from cholesterol?
hormones estrogens testosterone and hormones that govern reproduction and seccondary sexual traits