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49 Cards in this Set

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prokaryotes
single celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus
peptidoglycan
a protein-carb compound found in bacterial cell walls
methanogens
archaea that convert hydrogen and carbon dioxide into methane gas for energy
halophiles
'salt loving' archaea that live in environments with high salt concentrations
thermoacidophiles
archaea that live in very acidic environments that have high temperatures
marsh gas
the methane that bubbles out at sites such as swamps
black smokers
cracks in the ocean floor that leak hot dark acidic water
bacilli
rod shaped bacteria
spirilli
spiral shaped bacteria
cocci
sphere-shaped bacteria
streptococci
cocci in long chains
staphylococci
grapelike clusters of cocci
gram-negative bacteria
bacteria with complex small walls with less amounts of peptidoglycan and appear reddish pink in a gram stain
gram-positive bacteria
bacteria with simpler cell walls that retain the purple dye and appear purple in a Gram stain
antibiotics
chemicals that inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms
capsule
outer covering of polysaccharides protects the cell and helps it attach to other cells and surfaces
cell wall
outer covering that protects the cell and gives it shape
cell membrane
regulates types of molecules that move into and out of the cell
cytoplasm
contains dna, ribosomes, and organic compounds that are needed for life
chromosome
carries genetic information
plasmid
small circular self-replicating loops of double stranded dna
endospore
a thick-coated resistant structure that contains dna
pilus
short, hairlike protein structures that help the bacteria connect to each other and other surfaces
flagellum
propels the cell by rotating in a whiplike motion
phototrophs
organisms that get energy from light
autotrophs
organisms that get their carbon directly from carbon dioxide
heterotrophs
organisms that get their carbon from other organisms
chemotrophs
organisms that get energy from chemicals taken from the environment
obligate anaerobes
organisms that cannot live where molecular oxyn is present
facultative anaerobes
bacteria that can live with or without oxygen
obligate aerobes
prokaryotes that need oxygen to live
mesophiles
prokaryotes that grow best at temp. between 20 C and 40 C
thermophiles
grow best at very hot temp.
45 C to 110 C
acidophiles
acid loving prokaryotes
recombination
when prokaryotes exchange pieces of dna that can be added to the cell's dna without reproduction
transformation
when a prokaryote takes in dna from its outside environment
conjugation
process by which two prokaryotes bind together and one cell transfers dna to the other through a sex pilus
transduction
when a virus obtains a small part of dna from a host prokaryote
pathology
the scientific study of disease
exotoxins
toxic substances that bacteria secrete into their environment
endotoxins
toxic substances made of lipids and carbs associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria
antibiotic resistance
evolution of populations of pathogenic bacteria that antibiotics are unable to ill
penicillin
blocks the ability to build new cell wall material
tetracyline
blocks protein synthesis
zoonosis
disease that can pass from animals to humans
bioremediation
process that uses bacteria to break down pollutants
pathogens
organisms that cause disease
broad-spectrum antibiotics
antibiotics that can kill more than one kind of organism
r-plasmids
resistance genes in plasmids that give bacteria resistance to antibiotics