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30 Cards in this Set

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What was the name of the book Darwin published and when was it published?
The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Nov 24, 1859
species
A group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed, and produce viable offspring
Two points in Darwin's book
1)presented evience that the many species of organisms inhabiting the earth are descendants of an ancestral species
2)proposed a mechanism for the evolutionary process, natural selection
The effect of Darwin's book on society
1)shook the deepest roots of western culture
2)challenged a worldview that had been prevalent for centuries
Aristotle's view of species
viewed species as fixed and unchanging
Old Testament's view of species
holds that all species were individually designed by god and therefore perfect
What did Carolus Linnaeus do?
1)interpreted organismic adaption as evidence that the creator had designed each species for a specific purpose
2)founder of taxonomy
What help lay the ground work for Darwin ideas?
the studying of fossils
fossils
remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata
paleontology and who dev it
the study of fossils, dev by Georges Cuvier
Georges Curvier
1)dev paleontogy
2) opposed idea of gradual evolutionary change
3)believe instead catastrophism, speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe
gradualism
the idea that profound change can take place through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous process
Hutton and Lyell
1)believed in gradualism
2)perceived that changes in earth's surface can result from slow continuous actions still operating today
3)strongly influenced Darwin
Lamarack's Theory of evolution
1)species evolve through use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired traits
2)mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence
Voyage of the Beagle
1)ship Darwin rode on, observed and collected many specimens of south American plants and animals
2)Darwin observed various adaption of plants and animals that inhabited many diverse environments
When was the origin of species written?
1)written in 1844 but published later because Darwin was reluctant to introduce his theory publicly anticipating the uproar it would cause
2)1858 Darwin received manuscript from alfred russell wallace, who independently dev a theory of natural selection similar to darwin's
adaptive evolution ->
natural selection, ex. flinches in south america
descent with modification
1)summarizes darwin's perception of the unity of life
2)states that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past
__ of all organisms are extinct
at least 95%
artificial selection
humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits
ex. dogs, cats, mixing them
natural selection
1)differential success in reproduction
2)results from the interaction between individuals that vary in heritable traits and their environments
if environment changes over time
natural selection may result in adaption to these new conditions
evolution of drug resistant HIV
1)in humans, the use of drugs selects for pathogens that through chance mutations are resistant to the drugs effects
2)natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution
evolutionary theory provides
a cohesive explanation for many kinds of observations
homology
similarity resulting from common ancestry
ex. homologous structures
homologous structures
anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor
comparative embryology
reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms
vestigial organs
remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism's ancestors
subunits of proteins, DNA
amino acids, nucleotic acids
molecular homologies
observing homologies among organisms at the molecular level
ex. genes that are shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor