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 Discuss why organisms need energy and how they obtain it. All organisms need energy to do the “work” it takes to survive; eat, move, produce new cells, etc. Organisms can obtain energy from their ecosystem as producers or consumers or decomposers. Explain the law of conservation of energy. Energy is not created nor destroyed, it simply changes forms. There are many forms of energy, chemical, heat, mechanical. Humans use and store energy in the form of chemical energy. Know the units of energy; Calorie (kilocalorie) and calorie. The unit of measure for energy is the calorie. It is the amount of heat needed to raise 1 ml(gm) of water 1 degree Celcius. The amount of energy in foods uses the energy unit Calorie which is equal to 1 kilocalorie. 1 kilocalorie is equal to 1000 calories. Understand how energy in foods is estimated using a calorimeter. A way to determine the amount of energy in foods we eat is to burn the foods using a calorimeter. It is a device that measure heat energy. When food is burned it gives off heat and this heat is used to heat water. The number of degrees that the temperature increases per 1 ml (1 gm) of water is equal to the number of calories in the food. We also need to measure the total number of grams in the food we are testing so that we can come up with a per gram calorie value. Identify organisms as autotrophs, heterotrophs, producers, consumers, decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Organisms take on different “roles” in an ecosystem. Some organisms can produce their food using abiotic sources and are called autotrophs or producers. Organisms that obtain their energy by biotic sources, eating other organisms, are called heterotrophs or consumers. There are 4 types of consumers; herbivores that are plant eaters, carnivores which are meat eaters, and omnivores which have a diet of both food types. The fourth consumer type is called a decomposer which actually feeds off of decomposing matter (dead organism). Describe how energy flows through an ecosystem using food chains, food web, and the energy pyramid. Food chains are an example of the type of energy paths found in an ecosystem. Food chains begin with a producer and end with a decomposer. The including 3 consumers; an herbivore and a carnivore and typically a 3rd organism that is either an omnivore or a carnivore. A food web is a diagram of all of the organism and their feeding roles in the ecosystem. It should which animals might have competition for food sources as well as the role each organism plays in the food chain. An energy pyramid is a diagram which show also the 2 major roles in the ecosystem; the producers and consumers. The pyramid shape expresses the fact that most energy produced by each level is lost as heat energy and only 10% of the energy is passed to the next level. Recognize characteristics of the six major land biomes and types of plant and animal adaptations found in these biomes. The six major land biomes are tropical rain forest, grassland, deciduous forest, desert, tundra, and conferious forest (taiga). An example of an adaptation is how animals in the tundra have thick fur to conserve their body heat. Understand how kilocalories differ in biomes as shown in energy pyramids. A biome is distinguished by it’s climate (rainfall and temperature) and it’s major vegetation. If an area is able to grow more plants (producers) then they are able to provide more energy to an ecosystem. A biome with few plants per area is going to have a lower energy level (in kilocalories). Distinguish between synthesis and decomposition reactions in metabolism. Metabolism is an expression used to include all of the chemical reaction that take place in an organism. There are two main types; synthesis and decomposition. Synthesis is the chemical reaction where two small molecules are chemically bonded to create a new larger molecule. This type of process requires energy (ATP) to create the new molecules where energy is stored. Decomposition reactions are the breaking of chemical bonds to make two smaller molecules out of a large molecule. As the chemical bonds break, energy (ATP) is released and make available as free energy. Describe the characteristics of enzymes and their function. Enzymes are protein molecules that are used to complete all chemical reactions in the body. Without enzymes, chemical reactions would take years vs. minutes to complete. So, enzymes act as catalyse to speed up chemical reactions. Enzymes are also specific to a chemical or molecule. This belief is called the lock and key theory where one enzyme only works on one substrate. Enzymes are also not chemically changed during the reaction so it can be reused. Enzymes, though, can be effected by 3 factors; temperature, pH, and substrate concentration. Temperature, if increased, will help make a enzyme and the reaction run faster to a point. If the temperature get too high, the enzyme will denature and no longer works. pH effects enzyme rate because it needs to stay within a specific pH range or it also become denatured and doesn’t work. Substrate concentration on the other hand, improves the rate at which the enzyme works as the substrate concentration increases. But that is true only until the point when the concentration of the substrate matches the concentration of the enzymes, and then any higher substrate will not change the reaction rate. receives food mouth breaks, tears, grinds food teeth moves food around in mouth tongue contains amylase--changes starch into maltose salivatory gland pushes food to stomach esophagus stores food, mixes food--contains gastric juices to break down proteins stomach gastric juices HCl, water, pepsin absorbs nutrients into bloodstream--breaks down carbs, proteins, lipids small intestine creates enzymes that dissolve carbs, proteins, and lipids and dumps into the small intestine pancreas produces bile and dumps into small intestine liver stores excess bile and dumps into small intestine gall bladder leftover red blood cells bile removes excess water from undigested waste and creates feces large intestine stores feces rectum/colon exits waste from body anus Describe the differences between physical (mechanical) digestion and chemical digestion and provide examples of each process. Physical digestion helps by physically changing or reducing the size or shape of the food. An example is our teeth which rips, grind, or tear food into smaller particles. Chemical digestion is using enzymes to chemically change the molecules from one type to another. An example is the salivary glands. These glands produce amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth by chemically changing them into sugar. What makes something living? It can reproduce, communicate, contains DNA, has complex structures, grows and develops, but most of all USES ENERGY. What is energy? The capacity to do work. What are the different forms of energy? Solar energy, mechanical energy, chemical energy Where is chemical energy stored? Energy is stored within the bonds of the molecule (ATP)--called the energy carrier. What is free energy? Stored energy or potential energy that allows you to do work What are the parts of ATP? ribose; nitrogen base is adenine; phosphate chain; it is not stranded, although it is a nucleic acid How do organisms get energy? From their ecosystem (biotic and abiotic sources)--autotrophs get energy from abiotic sources, heterotrophs get energy from biotic sources What are autotrophs? They extract energy from non-living things: plants (sun)=photosynthesis; 1% of bacteria (chemicals)=chemosynthesis; they are PRODUCERS What are heterotrophs? They get energy from living things; they are called CONSUMERS or DECOMPOSERS. Who are the consumers and decomposers? The three levels of consumers are herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores; the decomposers consist of fungi and bacteria What are the six biomes? 1-Tropical Rain Forest, 2-Grasslands (Savanna and Prairies), 3-Desert, 4-Temperate Deciduous Forest, 5-Taiga or Coniferous Forest, and 6-Tundra What dicates the amount of Kcal in a biome? Rainfall and temperature How is biodiversity achieved? The more kcal in the biome, the more biodiversity in the biome. What is intracellular digestion? Digestion in autotrophs, which takes place within the cells that create the food. What is extracellular digestion? Digestion in heterotrophs, which takes place outside of the cells that need it (in an organ system for animals) or outside of the organisms body (i.e. with mushrooms) What is the Lock and Key Theory? The theory that enzymes fit with a specific substrate What is the purpose of a negative control? It is know to NOT contain the substance being tested for. It also indicates whether errors existed during experimentation. Are negative controls always necessary? Yes, all experiments require a negative control to test for laboratory error. What is the purpose of a positive control? It is know to contain the substance being tested for. It is only needed when the procedure doesn't tell what the outcome/appearance fo the cfompound that does contain the substance is. What is free energy? Stored energy or potential energy that allows you to do work What are the parts of ATP? ribose; nitrogen base is adenine; phosphate chain; it is not stranded, although it is a nucleic acid How do organisms get energy? From their ecosystem (biotic and abiotic sources)--autotrophs get energy from abiotic sources, heterotrophs get energy from biotic sources What are autotrophs? They extract energy from non-living things: plants (sun)=photosynthesis; 1% of bacteria (chemicals)=chemosynthesis; they are PRODUCERS What are heterotrophs? They get energy from living things; they are called CONSUMERS or DECOMPOSERS. Who are the consumers and decomposers? The three levels of consumers are herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores; the decomposers consist of fungi and bacteria What are the six biomes? 1-Tropical Rain Forest, 2-Grasslands (Savanna and Prairies), 3-Desert, 4-Temperate Deciduous Forest, 5-Taiga or Coniferous Forest, and 6-Tundra What dicates the amount of Kcal in a biome? Rainfall and temperature How is biodiversity achieved? The more kcal in the biome, the more biodiversity in the biome. What is intracellular digestion? Digestion in autotrophs, which takes place within the cells that create the food. What is extracellular digestion? Digestion in heterotrophs, which takes place outside of the cells that need it (in an organ system for animals) or outside of the organisms body (i.e. with mushrooms) What is the Lock and Key Theory? The theory that enzymes fit with a specific substrate What is the purpose of a negative control? It is know to NOT contain the substance being tested for. It also indicates whether errors existed during experimentation. Are negative controls always necessary? Yes, all experiments require a negative control to test for laboratory error. What is the purpose of a positive control? It is know to contain the substance being tested for. It is only needed when the procedure doesn't tell what the outcome/appearance fo the cfompound that does contain the substance is.