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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How many Valence electrons does each carbon atom have?
4 valence elecetrons
what gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length ?
a carbon atoms can bond to another carbon atoms
molecules in liveing cells are so lagre that they are called _______?
macromolecules
When monomomers join together they form ________?
polymers
What are the 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Nucleic Acids
4. Protien
What atoms make p carbohydrates?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxtgen atoms
What some examples of carbohydrates?
Surgar and starches
What are carbohydrates used for in liveing things?
main sorce of energy
What do plants and animals use carbohydrates for?
for strength and regidity
Single surgar molecules are called _____?
monosaccharides
Name 3 monosaccarides.
galactose, glucose, frucose
What is a large macromolecules formed from monosaccharies
ploysaccharides
How do plants and animals store excess sugar?
In polysaccharide called glycogen or animal starch
What kind of atoms are lipids mostly made up of?
carbon and hydrogen atoms
What are 3 common categories of lipids?
fats, oils, waxes
What are some ways that fat is used in liveing things?
As a part of biological membranes, to store energy, as a chemical messengers
Each carbon atom in a lipid's fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond

(kind of lipid)
saturated
at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid

(kind of lipid)
unsaturated
A lipid's fatty acid contain more than one double bond
polyunsaturated
Nucleic acids contain what kind of atom?
hydroen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon phosphorus
The monomers that make up nucleic acids are known as _____?
nucleotides
A nucleotide consists of what 3 parts?
5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base
What is the function of nucleic acids in living things?
Nucleic acid store and transmit hereditary or genetic information
What are 2 kinds of nucleic acids?
1. ribonucleic acid
2. deoxyribonucleic acid
Protien contains what kind of atoms?
nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
process tha changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
chemical reaction
What are these?

1. sequence of amino acid in protien chain
2. amino acid within a chain can be twisted or folded
3. chain itself is folded
4. specific arrangement in space as illustrated by the red and blue structres
Theses are 4 roles that proteins play in a living thing
Element or compound that enter in a chemical reaction
reactants
element or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
products
chemical reactions always involve changes in chemical ____?
bonds
What is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or aew broken?
energy
What do chemical reactions that absorb energy need to occur?
a source of energy
chemists call the energy neeeded to get a reaction started the ______?
activation
LOOK WORD FOR THE ENERGY-RELEASING REACTION CHART
A. Reaction
B. Activation
C. Products
Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
catalyst
protien that act as a biological catalysts
enzymes
How do cells use enzymes?
They use them to speed up chemical reactons that take place in cells
From what is part of an enzyme's name usually derived?
from itts catalyzes the reactiob that removes water from carbonicacid
The reactants of enzyme-catayzed reactions are known as ______?
substrates
Why are the active sites and the substrates in an enzyme-catalyzrd reaction often compared to a lock and key?
b.c the fit is so precise
The binding together of an enzyme and a substrate forms a (an) ______?
enzyme-substrate complex
How do most cells regulate the activity of enzymes?
Most cells cntain protien that help turn key enzymes "on" or "off" at criticle stages in the life of a cell
What is released or absorbed whenever chemical bonds form or aew broken?
energy
What do chemical reactions that absorb energy need to occur?
a source of energy
chemists call the energy neeeded to get a reaction started the ______?
activation
LOOK WORD FOR THE ENERGY-RELEASING REACTION CHART
A. Reaction
B. Activation
C. Products
Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
catalyst
protien that act as a biological catalysts
enzymes
How do cells use enzymes?
They use them to speed up chemical reactons that take place in cells
From what is part of an enzyme's name usually derived?
from itts catalyzes the reactiob that removes water from carbonicacid
The reactants of enzyme-catayzed reactions are known as ______?
substrates
Why are the active sites and the substrates in an enzyme-catalyzrd reaction often compared to a lock and key?
b.c the fit is so precise
The binding together of an enzyme and a substrate forms a (an) ______?
enzyme-substrate complex
How do most cells regulate the activity of enzymes?
Most cells cntain protien that help turn key enzymes "on" or "off" at criticle stages in the life of a cell
C6H12O6
monosaccharides