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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
quantity of matter an object has
the pull of gravity on an object
pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
simplest particle that retains all properties of an element
central core with two types of particles
positively charged praticle, mass of 1 amu
particle with no charge, mass of 1 amu
the total number of protons and neutrons
atomic mass
high energy particles with very little mass (0 amu)
energy levels, electrons travel on them
energy shells
when all the electrons are at their lowest state of potential energy
ground state
electrons in the outer level
valence or bonding electrons
no more than 8 electrons can occupy the outer energy level, this makes the atom more stable and is why atoms bond with eachother
octet rule
if the atom in nature has a filled outer energy level and they dont react with other elements
inert or noble
shows how electrons are arranged
electron configuration
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of protons in the nucleus
the time it takes for half of any size sample of an isotope to decay
half life
used to diagnose thyroid problems
radioactive iodine
a pure substance made of two or more elements
shows the kinds and proportions of atoms of each element in a particular compound
chemical formula
the have the same molecular formula, different structural formula
when an element undergoes a chemical reaction and becomes more stable
chemical bond
when two or more elements share one or more pairs of electrons
covalent bonds
the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of the substance and can exist in a free state
in _____ bonds sometimes the electrons are shared unequally. these are called ______ _____ bonds
covalent, polar covalent
the electrons are distributed equally around the molecule
non-polar bond
what happens when covalent compounds dissolve in water?
they will stay bonded together
formed by the transfer of electrons from on atom to another
ionic bond
when the element loses electrons and becomes positive because it loses negative charges
when the element gains electrons and becomes negative because it gains negative charges
charged atoms
___ compounds in water are weak, and they separate
attraction between molecules because of "hot spots" or charges on the molecules
Van der Waals Interactions
molecules that when exposed to water will coalesce to form droplets to exclude water, they dont like water
hydrophobic interactions
building blocks of elements
negative ion
indicates the number of protons that identify a given element
atomic number
a force that holds elements together in a compound/molecule
indicates the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
chemical reaction
the attraction of an atom for the electron of a covalent bond
hold ions together in an ionic compound
electrostatic force
weak bonds formed between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in a molecule and a nearby slightly negative atom (oxygen or nitrogen) of another molecule
hydrogen bond
charged particles which are atoms that have gained or lost electrons