Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Homeostasis
Dynamic process where the bodys organs and cells function together to maintain an environment for the organism to survive.
Sigal Transduction Pathway
process by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response in a series of steps
How do Yeast Cells mate?
Yeast cells use chemical signaling to identify cells of opposite sex and then initiate the mating process.
How do yeast cells identify each other?
one cell secretes a-factor chemical. the other secretes alpha-factor. receports on each cell bind to the factors.
What happens after a-factor and alpha-factor receptors bind?
the cells grow toward each other and the cells fuse. the nucleus of the two cells fuse into one.
Cell-Cell recognition
Comminimcations through direct contct between memebrane-bound cell surface molecules.
Cell junctions
allows molecules to pass between adjacent membranes without crossing plasma membranes.
What is local signaling?
Animal cells communicate by direct contact or secreting local regulators.
What is long-distance signaling?
Hormonal Signaling.
Animals and Plants use hormones to signal over long distance. Signals can also move over nerve cells.
What are Local Regulators? Name one?
Molecules secreted by cells that travel a short distance but incfluence cells in the vicinity.
Growth Factors.
Growth Factors
stimulate nearby cells to grow and multiply
Types of Local Signaling
1. Synaptic Signaling
2. Paracrine Signaling
Synaptic signaling
Occurs in Animal nervous systems.
Electrical signal triggers secretion of neurotransmitter molecules which move across synapse(space btwn nerve cells) to next nerve cell and process continues.
Paracrine signaling
Secreting cell discharges molecules into extracellular fluid which is picked up by other cells. One type is Growth Factors
How does Hormonal signaling(endocrine signaling)work?
Specialized cells release hormone into blood stream which can reach virtually any cell in the body.
Three stages of Cell Signaling
1. Signal Reception
2. Signal Transduction
3. Response
Describe Singal Reception
Target cell detects signal molecule outside cell. Detected when molecule binds to a receptor protien.
Describe Transduction
Protien receptor changes shape which somehow initates the process of transduction.
Sometimes single step or multiple steps (Signal Transduction Pathway)
Describe Response
This is the response of the cell to the sigal it recived.
Types of reponses
catalysis of enzyme,
rearanement of cytoskeleton,
activation of gene in nucleus
almost anything
What is a Ligand?
a molecule that specifically binds to another molecule.
What happes when a ligand attaches
receptor protien changes shape causing intracellular response
Types of Membrane Receptors
1. G-Protien linked receptors
2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
3. Ligand-Gated ion Channel