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29 Cards in this Set

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Stephen Fyler 10.1

a procedure that tests a hypothesis by the process of collecting data under controlled conditions
Stephen Fyler 10.1

experiment
Stephen Fyler 10.1

the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring
Stephen Fyler 10.1

heredity
Stephen Fyler 10.1


characteristics that are inherited
Stephen Fyler 10.1

trait
Stephen Fyler 10.1


the branch of biology that studies heredity
Stephen Fyler 10.1


genetics
Stephen Fyler 10.1


male and female sex cells; sperm and eggs
Stephen Fyler 10.1


gamete
Stephen Fyler 10.1


the male gamete unites with the famel gamete
Stephen Fyler 10.1


fertilization
Stephen Fyler 10.1


cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg
Stephen Fyler 10.1


zygote
Stephen Fyler 10.1


the tranfer of pollen grains from a male reproductive organ to a female reproductive organ in a plant
Stephen Fyler 10.1


pollination
Stephen Fyler 10.1


the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait, such as tall and short height
Stephen Fyler 10.1


hybrid
Stephen Fyler 10.1


alternative or different gene forms
Stephen Fyler 10.1


allele
Stephen Fyler 10.1


observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait
Stephen Fyler 10.1


dominant
Stephen Fyler 10.1


trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
Stephen Fyler 10.1


recesive
Stephen Fyler 10.1


every individual has two alleles of each gene and when gametes are produced, each gamete receives one of these alleles. During fertilization, these gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles
Stephen Fyler 10.1


law of segregation
Stephen Fyler 10.1


the way an organism looks and behaves
Stephen Fyler 10.1


phenotype
Stephen Fyler 10.1


the allele combination an organism contains
Stephen Fyler 10.1


genotype
Stephen Fyler 10.1


when there are two identical alleles for a trait
Stephen Fyler 10.1


homozygous
Stephen Fyler 10.1


when there are two different alleles for a trait
Stephen Fyler 10.1


heterozygous
Stephen Fyler 10.1


genes for different traits - for example, seed shape and seed color - are inherited independentlly of each other
Stephen Fyler 10.1


law of independent assortment
Stephen Fyler 10.2


the orderly process of nuclear division in which two new daughter cells each receive a complete set of chromosomes
Stephen Fyler 10.2


mitosis
Stephen Fyler 10.2


a cell with two of each kind of chromosome
Stephen Fyler 10.2


diploid
Stephen Fyler 10.2


a cell containing one of each kind of chromosome
Stephen Fyler 10.2


haploid
Stephen Fyler 10.2


the two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid cell; each pair has genes for the same traits (such as plant height)
Stephen Fyler 10.2


homologous chromosome
Stephen Fyler 10.2


type of cell division where one body cell produces four gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell
Stephen Fyler 10.2


meiosis
Stephen Fyler 10.2


male gametes
Stephen Fyler 10.2


sperm
Stephen Fyler 10.2


female gametes
Stephen Fyler 10.2


egg
Stephen Fyler 10.2


pattern of reproduction that involves the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells
Stephen Fyler 10.2


sexual reproduction
Stephen Fyler 10.2


exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations
Stephen Fyler 10.2


crossing over
Stephen Fyler 10.2


major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by reassortment or crossing over during meiosis
Stephen Fyler 10.2


genetic recombination
Stephen Fyler 10.2


the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis
Stephen Fyler 10.2


nondisjunction