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63 Cards in this Set

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Theory
an explanation for a very general class of phenomenon or observations
What question do cell theory and the theory of evolution by natural selection answer?
1. How are organisms structured,
and
2. Where did they come from?
Describe Hooke's experiment and discovery.
Using a 30X microscope, Hooke examined cork and discovered small, pore-like compartments (cells)
Describe van Leeuwwenhoek's experiment and discovery.
Using a more powerful microscope, van Leeuwwenhoek studied pond water and first observes the single celled organism; Also observes structure of human blood & sperm
Cell
A highly organized compartment bound by a plasma membrane and containing concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution
Name the 2 components of theories.
1. Describes a pattern in the natural world, and
2. Identifies the reason (mechanism or process) behind that pattern
Describe Rudolph Virchow's contribution to cell theory.
Virchow found that all cells arise from pre-existing cells
Describe the complete cell theory.
All organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre-existing cells
Spontaneous Generation
Organisms arise under certain conditions
Hypothesis
Proposed explanation
What was the purpose of Louis Pasteur's experiment?
Pasteur wanted to test the validity of the new "all-cells-from-cells" theory against the popularly accepted spontaneous generation
Describe the experiment Pasteur used.
1. Place broth in stright and swan flasks
2. Boil to kill living cells
3. Pre-exisiting cells enter from air; enter stright, are trapped in the swan's neck
What were the results and conclusions of Pasteur's experiment?
*Straight neck: Cells appear in the broth
*Swan neck: Broth remains sterile
*Conclusion: "all-cells-from-cells"
supported
What was the experimental factor in the Pasteur experiment?
The exposure to pre-exsting cells
What was Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis?
species come from other, pre-existing species, and species change though time
Name the 2 claims made in Darwin/Wallace's theory.
1. Species share a common ancestry
and
2. Characteristics of species can and will modify over genreations (heredity)
How does evolution occur?
Evolution occurs via natural selection
What are the 2 conditions that must be met for natural selection to occur?
1. Individuals in a population vary in characteristics that are hereditary
2. In any environment, certain heritable characteristics aid survival, reproduction
Population
A group of individuals of the ame species that live in the same area at hte same time
Describe the wheat experiment from Darwin/Wallace.
Short parents usu. have short offspring. In windy environments, tall wheat is blown down. Shorter wheat survives. Generations get shorter & shorter
T/F Natural Selection works direstly on a population.
False. Natural selection works on a population via individuals, allowing those most suited to survive to reproduce and inc. the frequency of those traits
Fitness
The ability of the individual to survive and reproduce;
Measured in number of offspring produced
Adaptation
A trait that increases the fitness of an indiviaual in a oarticular environment
Describe how broccoli came into existance.
Individuals of the mustard family with large and compact stalks were mated together. Over time and genreations, stalks became very large and compact
Why does natural selection occur?
Natural Selection occurs because individuals with certain traits are able to leave more offspring than those without these heritable traits
What are the 2 central ideas of Biology?
1. The cell is the fundamental structural unit in all organisms; and
2. All species are related by a common ancestry and changed over time via n.s.
Speciation
The divergence of new species caused by natural selection
What are the two possible changes from antural selection?
1. Change within species (ie evolution)
and
2. Change between species (ie speciation)
Taxonomy
The effort to name and classify organsims
Describe the system of Linnaeus taxonomy.
1. The first part indicates the genus of the orgaansim
2. The second part indicates the species of the organism
Species
Individuals that regularly breed together and have chasracteristics that are distinct from those of other species
Bionomial Nomenclature
the 2 part naming system of Linnaeus Taxonomy
Name the main Taxonomy groups.
Kingdom, Phyllum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

(least to most specific)
How many Kingdoms did Linnaeus suggest?
Two : plants and animals
Plants- Organisms don't move & make own food
Animals- Move and eat other organisms
What was the problem with Linnaeus' division of Kingdoms?
Not all organisms fit in one category or the other; ie bacteria move and make thier own food
How did the goal of Taxonomy change?
Rather than link organisms by appearance or road characteristics, the goal became linking the genealogical relationships; create a phylogeny
Phylogeny
The true historical relationship among the types of organisms
Eukaryotes
Organisms containign a nucleus;

Usually multicellular
Prokaryotes
Organisms without a nucleus;

Usually unicellular
Expalin how Woese 's Kingdom theory differed from the 2 or 5 Kingdom theories.
Woese looked at the chemical components (rRna) of organisms rather than the physical attributes (ability to move, presence of nucleus)
How did Woese examine the theory of evolution in organisms (what premise) ?
Woese guessed that the rRna of species closely related would be more similar than those less closey related. Time since species divergence = more change
Name the 5 Kingdoms in the 5 Kingdom system.
Kingdom Monera (all prokaryotes), Kingdom Protista (unicellular eukaryotes), Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Fingi, and Kingdom Animalia
Did Linnaeus and Woese have the same goal in their classifications?
No. Linnaeus created Kingdoms based on physical attribute to organize. Woese wanted to determine the phylogeny of the organisms.
Phylogenic Tree
A diagram that depicts the evolutionary history of organisms based on Woese's model
How are close relaitons shown on a Phylogenic Tree?
Organisms located on close branches are shown to have close relations
What are the 3 main groups on the Tree of Life?
1. The bacteria
2. Another group of prokaryotes; single celled organisms called "the Archae"
3. The eukryotes
Name the additional taxonomy level created by Woese.
The domain
Are fungi more closely related to plants or animals according to Woese?
Animals
What are is the 2 step process of hypothesis testing?
1. State the hypothesis as accurately as possible and list the predictions
2. Design an observaitobal study or experiment to test these predictions
How can you tell if a hypothesis is supported?
If the predictions are accurate, the hypothesis is supported. If they are inaccurate, continue testing, modify the hypothesis, or consider other reasons
Prediction
Something that can be measured and mus tbe correct in order for the hypothesis to be true
What are the predictions of the food competition hypothesis of giraffes?
1. Neck length is variable among giraffes
2. Neck length in giraffes is a heritable trait
3. giraffes feed high in trees in drought
What is the argument against the food competition theory of giraffes?
Giraffes usually feed at about 60% of their full height
What is the alternate hypothesis for long necks in giraffes?
The longer neck length allows for harder hits during mating season; Thus those that have longer necks have won more often and reproduced more long necks
What is the directed dispersal hypothesis?
Natural selection should favor the seeds that discourage the "seed predation" from occurring but allow for "seed dispersal"
Describe the experiment preformed to test the direct dispersal hypothesis.
Mice, seed predaors, and thrashers, seed dispersers, were presented with hackberries, and both pungent and non-pungent chilies & percent eaten recorded
Null Hypothesis
The results of an experiment if the hypothsis being tested is wrong; Often, it states that there is no difference between groups
What were the results of the Chili Pepper experiment ( directed dispersal ) ?
Both mice and thrashers ate a comparable amount of Hackberries. Mice ate no pungent chilies and few non-pungent. Thrashers ate both chilies
What was the experimental variable in the directed dispersal experiment?
The amount of berries/chilies eaten in the set tme frame was the experimental variable
What are the three key points for experimentation illustrated by the directed dispersal experiment?
1. Include control groups (the hackberries)
2. Control experimental conditions
3. Repeat the experiment
Describe the follow up experiment to the directed dispersal experiment.
Non-pungent chilies were eateb by both predators. They were then collected and planted, allong with uneaten seeds. The seeds that germinated were counted
What were the results of the second directed dispersal experiment?
Seeds eaten by the mice were destroyed.
Seeds eaten by the thrashers were effectively dispesed. Therefore, the capsaicin level = adaptation vs. mice
What aspect of cellular theory is van Leeuwenhoek known for?
van Leeuwenhoek is knoen for introducing the idea of cellular diversity