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30 Cards in this Set

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the study of life
biology
high degree of order within an organism's internal and external parts and in its interactions with the living world
organization
the smallest unit that can perform all life's processes
cell
"basic unit of life"
structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system
organ
groups of specialized parts that carry out a certain function in the organism
organ system
groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow the organ to function
tissues
made of cells; make up an organ
tiny structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stay alive
organelles
"tiny organ"
chemical compounds in an organelle that provide physical structure and that bring about movement, energy use, and other cellular function
biological molecules
made of atoms
the simplest particle of an element that retains all the properties of a certain element
atom
a physical or chemical change in the internal or external environment
stimulus
the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions even though the environmental conditions are constantly changing
homeostasis
stay-sis
the sum of all the chemical reactions that take in and transform energy and materials from the environment
metabolism
process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use the sun's energy to generate suger molecules
photosynthesis
the formation of two new cells from an existing cell
cell division
process by which an organism becomes a mature adult

involves cell division and cell differentiation
development
the specialization of different cells for specific functions
cell differentiation
process by which organisms produce new organisms like themselves
reproduction
large molecule in which hereditary information is encoded
deoxyribonucleic acid
[dna]
a short segment of dna that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism
gene
process by which hereditary information recombines from two organisms of the same species
sexual reproduction
process in which hereditary information from different organisms is not combined, and the new organism is exactly the same
asexual reprocuction
features that all living things have in common
unity of life
branches of the "tree of life"
lineages
the three major branches on the tree of life

bacteria
archea
eukarya
domains
the six major categories within the tree's three domains

animalia, plantae, fungi, protista
bacteria
archea
kingdoms
branch of biology that studies organisms interacting with each other and with the environment
ecology
communities of living species and their physical environments
ecosystems
descent with modification; the process in which the inherited characteristics within populations change over generations such that genetically distinct populations and new species can develop
evolution
the theory by which organisms that have certain favorable traits are better able to survive and reproduce successfully than organisms that lack these traits
natural selection
traits that improve an individuals ability to survive and reproduce
adaptations