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27 Cards in this Set

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True/False: Bacterial DNA is found in the cytosol
True. Bacteria have no nucleus
True/False: Nuclei and mitochondria are surrounded by a double membrane
True. The nuclear envelope is a double membrane and mitochondria are surrounded by an inner and outer membrane
What are the three major filaments that make up the cytoskeleton? What do they do
Actin filaments: involved in rapid cell movement (ex. muscle cell)
Intermediate filaments: provide mechanical stability (ex. epidermal cells)
Microtubules: tracks for intracellular movements and responsible for separation of chromosomes
What type of macromolecule can serve as structural support, a chemical catalyst or molecular motor?
Protein
About when it is though that an ancestral cell for all forms of life existed on Earth?
Between 3.5 and 3.8 billion years ago
Cells
Small, membrane-enclosed units filled with a concentrated aqueous solution of chemicals and have the ability to create copies of themselves
Micro
"u" 10^-6
Milli
10^-3
Pico
10^-12
Nano
10^-9
Nucleus
Enclosed within two concentric membranes that form the nuclear envelope and contains DNA molecules
Mitochondria
Organelles that oxidize food molecules to produce ATP.
Has two membranes, has its own DNA, thought to have derived from bacteria that was engulfed by eukaryotic cell
Chloroplasts
Green organelles found only in plants- enables them to use the energy from sunlight to manufacture sugar molecules
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Irregular maze of interconnected spaces enclosed by a membrane
Site where most cell membrane components, as well as materials destined for export from the cell are made
Golgi apparatus
Receives and chemically modifies the molecules made in the ER and directs them to the exterior of the cell or to various locations inside the cell
Lysosomes
Intracellular digestion occurs here, releasing nutrients from food particles and breaking down unwanted molecules for recycling or excretion
Peroxisomes
Provide a contained environment for reactions in which hydrogen peroxide is generated and degraded
Vesicles
Transport materials between on membrane-enclosed organelle to the next
Cytosol
Concentrated aqueous gel of large and small molecules
Everything but the organelles
Cytoskeleton
Responsible for directed cell movements
Protozoans
Single celled eukaryotes that can prey upon and swallow other cells
Very complex
Model Organism: E. coli
Most understood organism on earth
Learned: how cells replicate DNA and decode to make proteins
Model Organism: S. cerevisiae (Yeast)
Learned: cell division cycle
Model Organism: Arabidopsis (plant)
Learned: Genetics and evolution of flowering plants
Model Organism: Drosophila (fly)
Learned: how zygotes can grow into complex organisms with specialized cells
Model organism: C. elegans (nematode worm)
Learned: programmed cell death
Model organism: Mice
Learned: mutations of genes help to define what they code for