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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
histone
protein that DNA is wrapped around to form chromosomes
nonhistone
protein that does not help in the packing of DNA
chromatid
half of a chromosome
centromere
holds two chromatids together
chromatin
less-coiled DNA
prokaryotic DNA
has one circular chromosome
sex chromosome
chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism.
female: XX
male: XY
autosomes
all of the chromosomes in the body except the sex chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
two copies of an autosome that carry genes for the same trait
Diploid cell
cell with 2 sets of chromosomes
ex- body cells
are body cells diploid or haploid?
diploid
Haploid cell
cell containing only 1 set of chromosomes
ex-sex cells
Name the two parts of cell division.
mitosis
cytokinesis
binary fission
division of a prokaryotic cell
Mitosis
process of dividing a cell to create an identical copy
Meiosis
reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell by half
cell cycle
repeating set of events that make up the life of a cell
interphase
time between cell divisions
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm of the cell
G1 phase
cell grows to mature size
S phase
cell's DNA is copied
G2 phase
preperation for division
G0 phase
cells exit the cell cycle (retire)
Prophase of Mitosis
DNA coils
nucleolus disappears
centrosomes appear
Metaphase
spindle fibers move the chromosomes to the middle of the cell
Centrosomes (2 centrioles)
pair of cylindrical bodies from which spindle fibers radiate
Do plant cells have centrioles?
No, but they do have centrosomes.
spindle fibers
fibers (made of microtubules) which connect to centrosomes
miotic spindle
an array of KINETICHORE fibers which serves to equally divide the chromatids during cell division
Kinetochore fibers
connect to centromeres and centrosomes
kinetochore
disk-shaped fiber in the centromere
Anaphase of Mitosis
chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell
Telophase of Mitosis
Spindle fibers dissassemble
chromosomes uncoil a bit
nucleolus forms
cleavage furrow
area where the cell membrane pinches in and eventually seperates the cell
cell plate
forms to help plant cells divide
Gametes
sex cells: sperm and egg cells.
contains 23 chromosomes
Do cells go through interohase before dividing in Meiosis?
Yes.
Prophase I of Meiosis
DNA coils tightly
spindle fibers appear
Nucleus and nucleolus disappear
homologous chromosomes pair up
Synapsis
time when homogolous chromosomes pair up
occurs during prophase I of meiosis
Tetrad
a pair of homologous chromosomes
Crossing-over
when portions of chromatids break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
Two ways to obtain genetic recombination
crossing-over
independent assortment
Metaphase I of Meiosis
-tetrads line up randomly along the midlines of the cell
-spindle fibers connect tetrads
Anaphase I of Meiosis
each homologous chromosome moves the opposite ends of the cell
Independent Assortment
the random separtion of the homologous chromosomes during anaphase
kinetochore
disk-shaped fiber in the centromere
Anaphase of Mitosis
chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell
Telophase of Mitosis
Spindle fibers dissassemble
chromosomes uncoil a bit
nucleolus forms
cleavage furrow
area where the cell membrane pinches in and eventually seperates the cell
cell plate
forms to help plant cells divide
Gametes
sex cells: sperm and egg cells.
contains 23 chromosomes
Do cells go through interohase before dividing in Meiosis?
Yes.
Prophase I of Meiosis
DNA coils tightly
spindle fibers appear
Nucleus and nucleolus disappear
homologous chromosomes pair up
Synapsis
time when homogolous chromosomes pair up
occurs during prophase I of meiosis
Tetrad
a pair of homologous chromosomes
Crossing-over
when portions of chromatids break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
Two ways to obtain genetic recombination
crossing-over
independent assortment
Metaphase I of Meiosis
-tetrads line up randomly along the midlines of the cell
-spindle fibers connect tetrads
Anaphase I of Meiosis
each homologous chromosome moves the opposite ends of the cell
Independent Assortment
the random separtion of the homologous chromosomes during anaphase
kinetochore
disk-shaped fiber in the centromere
Anaphase of Mitosis
chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell
Telophase of Mitosis
Spindle fibers dissassemble
chromosomes uncoil a bit
nucleolus forms
cleavage furrow
area where the cell membrane pinches in and eventually seperates the cell
cell plate
forms to help plant cells divide
Gametes
sex cells: sperm and egg cells.
contains 23 chromosomes
Do cells go through interohase before dividing in Meiosis?
Yes.
Prophase I of Meiosis
DNA coils tightly
spindle fibers appear
Nucleus and nucleolus disappear
homologous chromosomes pair up
Synapsis
time when homogolous chromosomes pair up
occurs during prophase I of meiosis
Tetrad
a pair of homologous chromosomes
Crossing-over
when portions of chromatids break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome
Two ways to obtain genetic recombination
crossing-over
independent assortment
Metaphase I of Meiosis
-tetrads line up randomly along the midlines of the cell
-spindle fibers connect tetrads
Anaphase I of Meiosis
each homologous chromosome moves the opposite ends of the cell
Independent Assortment
the random separtion of the homologous chromosomes during anaphase
Telophase I of Meiosis
-chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell
-each new cell is haploid
-nucleolus forms
-ctyokinesis begins
Do cells copy their DNA before entering Meiosis II?
No.
Prophase II of Meiosis
nucleolus breaks down
spindle fibers form
Metaphase II of Meiosis
chromosomes move to the midline
Anaphase II of Meiosis
chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell
Telophase II of Meiosis
nucleolus forms
cytokinesis II occurs
How many and what type of cell(s) does Meiosis begin with?
1 diploid cell
How many and what type of cell(s) does Meiosis result in?
4 haploid cells
How many and what type of cell(s) does Mitosis begin with?
1 diploid cell
How many and what type of cell(s) does Mitosis result in?
2 diploid cells
Do they chromatids separateduring Anaphase I of Meiosis?
No, the chromosomes move to different side, but do not divide into chromatids.
Where does Meiosis take place?
Reproductive organs
Process where sperm is produced
Spermatogenesis
Process where eggs are produced
Oogenesis
How many sperm are produced from spermatogenesis
4
Spermatid
a haploid cell that develops into a mature sperm cell
What is produced during Oogenesis?
1 egg cell
3 polar bodies
Polar bodies
leftover products of meiosis which are discarded
How are egg cells and polar bodies created differently during meiosis?
Most of the cytoplasm is given to the egg cell.