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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is a genome?
entire dna sequence of an organism
what do genetic maps do?
show the relative location of genes on a chromosome as determined by recombination frequencies; cM
what are physical maps?
diagrams showing the relative position of landmarks within specific a dna sequence; bp
what is a contig?
continuous segment of genome
what are artificial chromosomes?
vecor-used in cloning lsrger pieces of dna
-yeast artifi. chromo. (YAC)
-bacterial art. chrom. (BAC)
what is clone-by-clone sequencing?
cloning larger inserts;
consruct a physical map first, then use it to place the site of BAC clones for later sequencing;
if 2 BAC clones have same STS, this means they overlap
what is shotgun sequencing?
sequence ll cloned fragments & use a computer to put together overlaps
what is a consensus sequence?
multiple copies used to determine the most accurate sequence
what is the human genome project?
International H.G. seq. consortium; human genome has 3.2 gigabases; announced on June 26, 2000 entire genome had been sequenced
what are bioinformatics?
uses computer programs to search for genes, compare genomes, & assemble genomes
what is an open reading frame (ORF)?
section of dna that codes for a protein
what is an expressed sequence tag (EST)?
a sequence tagged site used to identify genes
what are the four classes of protein-encoding genes found in eukaryotes?
1.)single-copy genes-single copy on a chromosome
2.)segemental duplications- blocks of genes copied from one chromo. to another
3.)multigene families-groups of related genes that occur in clusters
4.)tandem clusters-ident. copies transcribe simult. which increases the amount of mRNA for protein productio
what are the six major types of noncoding dna?
1.)noncoding dna w/in genes-introns
2.)struct. dna-regions around the cntromere or ends of chromo. that remain condensed
3.)simple sequence repeats- a repeated nucleotide seq.
4.)segmented duplications-blocks of seq, duplicated and moved
5.)pseudogenes-inactivates genes that may have lost funct. b/c of mutation
6.)transposable elements-pieces of dna that can jump from one location on a chromo. to another
what is synteny?
refers to conserved arrangements of dna segments in related genomes
what is functional genomics?
the study of the functions of genes and their products.
how are dna microarrays made?
dna fragments are deposited on a microscope slide
what is proteomics?
cataloging and analyzing every protein in the human body
what is transcriptome?
all the rna present ina tissue at a specific time
what are three areas that genomics can improve?
medical diagnostics, agriculture, and biological weapons
what are some potential problems with genomics?
-gene patents
-privacy concerns