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91 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When the cell membrane pouches inward, forming a vesicle around liquid from the external medium that is to be taken into the cell.
What happened when the glucose egg was put in vinegar?
Its mass decreased.
What is division of Labor?
When cells take special jobs which relate to its organization and specialization.
Uninterrupted diffusion of water through the membranes of cells.
Exocytosis is like a _______ _______.
Swinging door.
____ are synthesised at ____ attached along membranes of the _____.
1) Proteins
2) Ribosomes
3) Endoplasimic Reticulum
What do specialized systems account for?
The complexity of multicellular organisms.
How does water diffuse?
Down its concentration gradient (to places of lower water concentration).
When contact between the cell membrane and particulate matter causes the cell membrane to extend around the particle, engulfing it in a vacuole. If the particle is a food item, lysosomes fuse with the vacuole, spilling their digestive enzymes into it.
The movement of molecules from an are of greater concentration into areas of lesser concentration until the concentration is the same everywhere.
A group of cells with the same specialization.
Any part of a eukaryotic cell that has its own structure and function.
Explain how transport proteins are of two general types.
1) One type forms channels through which specific ions can diffuse.
2) The other type acts as a carrier that binds to the molecule to be transported and physically moves it across the membrane.
What do glycolipids' and glycoproteins' role in a cell?
Cell-to-cell recognition.
When organs are incorporated into systems of organs.
What is the function of glycoproteins and where are they located in a cell?
On the outer surface of membranes, they act as antennae to receive chemical messages from other cells.
When water moves OUT of a cell.
How are phospholipids arranged?
The tails face eachother in the middle of the membrane while the heads face the watery environment on each side of the membrane.
Most animals and plants have many types of tissues. Different tissues may be organized into organs.
What are the two basic types of cells?
Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic cells
What is required to move the molecules in active transport?
Energy supplied by ATP
What is often embedded in the membrane or attached to the phospholipid's outer or inner surface?
The cells that form a cells outer covering.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
First to observe living cells and microscopic cells.
Why is active transport important to cells?
The "pumping" of select ions and molecules through a membrane to an area with an already higher concentration of the same ions or molecules is essential to cell metabolism and growth.
What do systems allow?
Most cells to be protected and not be in direct contact with the outsid environment.
What do the composition of differents systems in an organism result in?
They unite all its parts into a smoothly functioning whole.
What is a key feature of eukaryotic cells?
A key feature of eukaryotic cells is the structure and division of the cell into smaller functional parts called organelles.
During transport, the carrier generally ______ _______.
Changes shape.
What are the levels of organization in biology?
Biosphere, Ecosystems, communities, populations, organisms, systems, organs, tissue, cell, organelles, compound molecules, macro molecules, molecules, Atoms, and subatiomic particals.
What three reasons are systems necessary for?
1) A division of labor occurs among cells.
2) Many individual cells cannot work together without regulation and coordination.
3) The majority of the cells are not in direct contact with the outside envronment.
M.J. Schleiden
Worked with Schwann to advance the idea that both plants and animals are made of cells that contain nuclei and cell fluid.
When water moves OUT of a cell.
The cell theory
1) Cells, or products made by cells, are the units of structure and function in organisms
2)All cells come from preexisting cells.
Active transport out of a cell.
-Can enhabit extreme environments
-Belong to the kingdom Monera (Bacteria)
-Usually one-celled organisms
-Rigid cell wall with no cellulose
-Has a plasma membrane which encloses the cell
-No nucleus
Facilitated diffusion
Durring transport, if the carrier moves the molecules down their concentration gradient (in the same direction as diffusion), the passive transport process is known as facilitated diffusion.
Are the tails of phospholipids hydrophopic or hydrophilic?
What is an isotonic situation? What is another name for what happens in an isotonic situation.
When water moves in and out of a cell equally with a net result of no change. Tis is called dynamic equilibrium.
What allows membranes to perform many functions in a cell?
Their structure.

(For example, the proteins involved in ATP synthesis are situated in the inner membrane of chloroplasts and mitochondria in a way that enables them to convert efficiently either light energy (photosynthesis) or chemical energy (respiration) to ATP.
What is the difference between simple and facilitated diffusion?
Facilitated diffustion uses an integral protein that has a pore or channel.
First to observe or discover cells.
Active transport into a cell.
What job is diffusion resposible for?
The movement of substances, such as gases and some cellular wastes, into and out of cells.
Name some small molecules that are electrically neutral and readily diffuse across the lipid bilayer of plasma membranes.
Water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
-Has a nucleus
-Complex and organized
-Has cellulose in walls
What do the nonpolar phospholipid tails of the lipid bilayer tend to do?
Repel charged particles but allow lipid soluble molecules to diffuse easily.
Are the heads of phospholipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Active Transport
Substances move throught transport proteins, but against their concentration gradient (from a lower to a higher concentration).
What happened when the water egg was put in vinegar?
Its mass increased.
Passive Transport
Substance move down their concentration gradient through the appropriate transport proteins.
What is often present in the membranes of animal cells?
If water diffuses out of a cell, what happens to the mass of the cell?
Its mass decreases.
How does diffusion occur?
The molecules in a gas or a liquid are in constant motion. Moving molecules continually collide, and the highter the concentration of molecules, the greater the number of collisions. These collisions cause the molecules to change direction and to spread out until they eventually become uniformly distributed.
Spherical membrane-enclosed organelle which packages proteins in the Golgi Apparatus. They can become containers that carry substances out of the cell.
Membranes of different cells and organelles may contain _____ amounts and types of _____ and _____, but the basic structure and organization appears to be _____ for all membranes.
1) Different
2&3) Lipids/ proteins
4) Similar
Without a cell wall what would be the fate of cells in the roots of a plant when it is watered?
The cells would burst.
Theodor Schwann
Realized that the cell question was incorectly based on the boxlike cell structure of plants instead of what was inside the cell.
Golgi apparatus
The proteins may undergo final assembly in the membranous golgi apparatus (after the ribosomes).
Concentration Gradient
The measure of the difference in concentration across a distance.
Tubular structures in animal cells that play an important role in cell reproduction.
What do membranes have the ability to regulate?
The movement of materials in and out of cells and organelles.
Solid but flexable strands.
What is formed when sugars are attached to the lipids and proteins on the outer surface of the phospholipids?
Glycolipids and glycoproteins.
Present in most plant cells appear to be vesicles that enlarge as the cells age. In plants, they contain water, organic acids, enzymes, salts, and pigments that give plants such as beets their characteristic color. There are many small ones in animals and one large one in plants
Electron Microscope
Reveal very tiny cell parts and even some organic molecules down to 0.5 nanometers (nm)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A system of membranes forming rubes and channels. It connects organelles in the cell (transportation).
First to observe cell reproduction.
Protein-rich, semifluid material in the cell that surrounds and bathes the organelles. It includes the cytosol and the organelles.
What two scientists established the cell theory?
Schlieden and Schwann
Network of proteins of hollow moctotubules connecting intermediate filaments. Provides shape, internal organization, and movement of a cell. The protein scaffolding is made up of hollow microtubules, microfilaments, and connecting intermediate filaments. Organelles may be held in place by the cytoskeleton, which may also enable a cell to change shape.
What type of lipid composes the membrane of a cell?
Phospholipids, which form a bilayer of molecules oriented end to end.
The the water concentration inside a cell is 95% and the glucose consentration inside the cell is 5%, in what direction would each ingredient diffuse if the cell were placed in a solution composed of 20% glucose, 10% iodine, and 70% water?
Glucose would diffuse into the cell.
Water would diffuse out of the cell (osmosis).
Ioline would diffuse into the cell.
What is often attached to the lipids and to proteins on the outer surface of the phospholipid?
Site of intracellular degestion; formed by budding from Golgi apparatus; fuses with vesicles containing food particles ingested by cell. (Excretion of a cell)
Because of the location and position of the proteins, the membrane is _____.
Cell wall
Provides support in plant cells because it is composed of stiff fibers of cellulose and other complex carbohydrates. Animal cells lack a cell wall.
Receptor mediated
Cholesterol goes out of the blood.
Double-membrane organelles involved in energy reactions in the cell. They are the structures in which photosynthesis occurs in plants and autotrophic protists.
What type of process is diffusion and what does it result in?
Diffusion is a spontaneous process that results in a random distribution of molecules and thus in an increase in the entropy of a system.
A cells genetic control center. It is enclosed by two membranes that form the nuclear envelope. It contains chromosomes made up of DNA and protein.
Plasma membrane
Encloses the contents of both eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.
What does selectively permeable depend on?
The barrier formed by the lipid bilayer and on the specific proteins in the membrane.
Thin layers of proteins and lipids responisbe for many functions essential to life.
What happens if a plant cell is placed in water?
It will swell a little but it wouldn't burst because the rigid cell wall.
What usually happens when a cell is put into pure water?
Osmosis causes the cell to burst.
Small bodies attatched to the ER, in which proteins are synthesised.
Selectively permeable
Regulate the movement of most molecules into and out of cells and organelles.
Flagella and Cilia
Flagella- long whiplike extensions of the cell surface. They are usually made of micrto tubules.
Cilia- hort flagella, usually present in greater numbers. Flagella and Cilia provide locomotion by whipping in an oarlike motion against the fluid surrounding a cell. May also serve to move material along a cell or tissue.
Tubular protein structures.
The major sites of ATP synthesis in most cells and have been called the powerhouses of the cell.