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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds
the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
condensation reaction; dehydration reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other throught the loss of a small molecule, usually water
a chemical process that lyses or splits molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion
includes both sugars and their polymers
the simplest carbohydrates which are known as simple sugars
consists of two monosaccharides
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
macromolecule (polymers with a few hundred to thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage
a storage polysaccharide of plants
a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched; animals store this polysaccharide
a major component of the tought walls that enclose plant cells
the carbohydrate used by arthopods (insects, spiders, crustaceans, and related animals) to build their exoskeletons
a hard case that surrounds the soft parts of the animal
one of a fammily of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, steroids, that are insoluble in water
fat (triacylglycerol)
a biological compound consisting of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule
fatty acid
a long carbon chain carboxylic acid. these vary in length and location of double bonds. 3 of these linked to a glycerol molecule form fat
saturated fatty acid
there are no double bounds between the carbon atoms composing the tail, and as many hydrogen atoms as possible are bounded to the carbon skeleton.
unsaturated fatty acid
has one or more double bonds, formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton; the fatty acid will have a kink in its shape wherever a double bond occurs
molecules that constitute the inner bilayer of boiological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail
a class of lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached
a steroid which is a common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized
a 3-D biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
polymers of aminoacids
amino acids
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups
peptide bond
the covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by condensation synthesis
primary structure
the level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide bacbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
alpha helix
a spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure
pleated sheet
one form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds
tertiary structure
irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges
hydrophobic interaction
a type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do no mix with water coalesce to exclude the water
disulfide bridges
strong covalent bonds between two cysteine monomers (amino acids with sulfhydryl groups on their side chains)
quaternary structure
the particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic 3-D arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
for proteins a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature
chaperone proteins
molecules that function as temporary braces in assisting the folding of other proteins