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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
any substance in universe that has mass and takes up space
Who Came Up With the Atom Theory?
Neils Bohr
Mike JOooones.
atomic number
the number of protons
atomic mass
number of protons plus neutrons
units used to measure atoms and subatomic particles
radioactive isotopes
atoms whose protons and neutrons differ such that the atomic core spontaneously decays-- emits energy and/or subatomic particles
time necessary to decay 1/2 of atoms in a given sample
neutral atoms
atoms with same number of protons and electrons
atoms whwere the number of protons is diff. from the number of electrons, carry net charge
Positive (+=t)
more electrons than protons
area around nucleus where electron is likely to be found
loss of an electron to another atom during chemical reaction
gain of an electron in a chemical reation
reduces the electrical charge
group of atoms held together in a stable association
a molecule containing atoms of more than one element
ionic bonds
form when atoms w/ opposite charges attract
ionic compound
opposite charged ions remain associated together.
covalent bonds
two atoms share 1 or more pairs of valence electrons
double bonds
when 2 atoms share 2 pairs of electrons

stronger than single bonds
a property of atomic nuclei that refers to the affinity of the nuclei for valence electrons.
polar molecules
molecules that exhibit charge seperation
polarity of water attracts it to other water molecules
polarity of water attracts it to other substances
Specific Heat
the amt. of heat that must be absorbed to change the temp. of 1g of a substance 1 deg. C.
Heat of Vaporization
amt. of energy required to change 1g ofo liquid water into a gas. (580 cals)
hydrophobic exclusion
the tendency of nonpolar compounds to aggregate in water.
hydrogen ion
hydroxide ion
substance that resists change in pH
hydration shell
formed when a sucrose molecule dissociates or breaks away from a crystal to prevent it from associating w/ other molecules surrounding it in a cloud
when nonpolar molecules shrink from contact with water
radioactive decay
the nuclear breakup of a radioactive isotope
valence electrons
outer energy level electrons;
responsible for chemical reactivity
chemical reaction
the formation and breaking of chemical bonds
involve shifting of atoms from 1 molecule or ionic cpd to another, without any change in the identity of the atoms
the most stable arrangement for water
polar sides ~equidistant
polar molecules
Molecules that exhibit charge separation

water one of most polar molecules
hydrogen bonds
the bridging of hydrogen atoms due to opposite delta polar charges.
Water's Special Properties
1) Cohesion
2) Adhesion
3) High Specific Heat
4) High Heat of Vaporization
5) Less Dense as Solid (ice)
6) Solubility