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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
electrons located in _______
electrons are maintained in their orbits because
they are attracted to the oppositely charged nucleus (protons)
Atomic Energy Levels
When an electron absorbs energy, it moves to higher energy levels, farther from the nucleus. When an electron releases energy, it falls to lower energy levels, closer to the nucleus.

Energy Level (#/letter)

En. Released> Energy Absorbed>
(3M) (2L) (1K) N (1K) (2L) (3M)
Who created the Periodic Table?
Dmitri Mendeleev
Inert (Noble) Gases
What are they
atoms with full outer energy levels
8 electrons in outer level (except 2 for He)

Octet Rule
atoms tend to establish a full set (8) of valence electrons
4 elements that make up 96% of your body weight.
How much of each (%)?
1. Oxygen 65%
2. Calcium 18.5%
3. Hydrogen 9.5%
4. Nitrogen 3.3%

OC in 65 and 18.5
HN in 9.5 and 3.3
Ionic bonds
1) When does this form?
2) What types (groups of atoms)?
3) Explain about the bond
1) When oppositely charged ions attract
2) metal and nonmetal (L and R)
3)bonds are not formed b/t particular ions in the compound; rather, they exist b/t an ion and all of the oppositely charged ions in its immediate vicinity.
Covalent Bonds
1) When does this bond form?
2) What types of groups?
1) when 2 atoms share 1 or more pairs of valence electrons
2) Those that both need to gain electrons, nonmetals, on R side
3 Factors Influencing the Extent to which Chemical Reactions Occur
1) Temperature
2) Concentration of reactants and products
3) Catalysts
Water structure
Oxygen atom bound to 2 H atoms by covalent bonds
"the most outstanding chemical property of water"
ability to form weak chemical associations w/ only 5 to 10% of the strength of covalent bonds.

Hydrogen Bonding
1) ionization- define
2) What two ions is it afterwards?
1)when covalent bonds in water spontaneously break
2) hydrogen and hydroxide ions
negative logarithm of the H+ ion concentration in a solution

pH= -log [H+]

acids less than 7, more hydrogen ions.
key buffers in humans
carbonic acid, bicarbonate