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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
All matter is composed of what
atoms
Atoms are composed of what three major things?
protons
neutrons
electron
Protons:
positively charged particles
Neutrons:
Neutrally charged particles
Electrons:
negatively charged particles
Where are protons and electrons located
Nucleus
Where are neutrons found?
Orbitals surrounding the nucleus
Protons are equal to what other particle
electrons
Atomic number is equal to what other particle?
Protons
What happens when atoms have the same atomic number
they have the same chemical properties and belong to the same element
Dalton=
mass of proton and neutron
Electrons are equal to what other particle
protons
protons+neutrons=
atomic mass
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different atomic mass number due to different number of neutrons
Neutral Atoms:
have the same nmber of protons and electrons
Ions:
charged atoms
Cations-
have more protons than electrons and are positively charges
anions-
have more electrons than protons and are negatively charged
Where are electons located?
electrons are located in orbitals surrounding the nucleus
how many electrons can an orbital have?
two
oxidation:
the process of losing an electron
reduction:
the process of gaining an electron.
Valence Electrons:
electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
Periodic Table:
arranges all elements according to their atomic number. Identifies element of similar chemical properties
Octet Rule:
Atoms ted to establish completely -ful outer energy level (fill in each ring and then the rest)
Whats the difference with an atom with unfilled energy
full energy
atoms with full energy levels are less reactive than atoms with unfilled energy levels.
How many natural occuring elements?
92
What are the four elements that makeup up 96.3 percent of hman body weight?
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
nitrogen
Molecules:
groups of atoms held together in a stable association
cOMPOUNDS:
molecules containing more than one type of element.
Ionic bonds:
lose/gain electrons
Covalent bonds:
share bonds
Electronegativity:
an atom's affinity for electrons
Non Polar Covalent Bonds:
Equal shring of electons
(proteins, carbs,etc)
Polar Covalent bonds:
unequal sharing of electrons
(water)
Chemical Reactions occur by..(3)
-termperature
-concentration of reactants and products
-availability of a catalyst
Whats the most important property of water
the ability to form hydrogen bonds
Solvent:
dissolves in water
Hydrogen Bonds:
weak attractions between the partially negative oxygen of one water molecule and the partially positive hydrogen of a different water molecule
What does the polarity of water cause?
cohesive and adhesive
cohesion:
water molecules stick to other water molecules by hydrogen bonding
adhesion:
water molecules stick to other polar molecules by hydrogen bonding
Hydrophyllic:
water loving
Hydrophobic:
water fearing
Base:
A chemical that accepts H+1 ions (larger number)
Acid:
a chemical that releases H+1 ions
Buffer:
A chemical that accepts/release H+1 as necessary to keep pH constant